Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent worldwide and may have a role, with sun exposure, in causing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Little is known about the relationship of UV exposure and seroprevalence of cutaneous HPVs in the general population. Methods: Using multiplex serology, we estimated the seroprevalence of 23 beta and 7 gamma HPVs and 7 other antigens (mu HPV1, HPV63, nu HPV41, alpha HPV16; polyomaviruses HPyV7 and MCV; p53) in a population-based sample of 1,161 Australian 45 and Up Study participants with valid data from blood specimens collected from 2010 to 2012. We calculated prevalence ratios (PR) for the association of each antigen with residential ambient solar UV and other UV-related variables. Results: Seropositivity for at least one beta or gamma HPV was high at 88% (beta HPVs 74%, gamma HPVs 70%), and less in women than men [e.g., PR beta-2 HPV38 ¼ 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56–0.87; any gamma ¼ 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84–0.97]. A high ambient UV level in the 10 years before study enrollment was associated with elevated seroprevalence for genus beta (PRtertile3vs1 any beta ¼ 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07–1.28), and beta-1 to beta-3 species, but not for gamma HPVs. Other UV-related measures had less or no evidence of an association. Conclusions: Seroprevalence of cutaneous beta HPVs is higher with higher ambient UV exposure in the past 10 years. Impact: The observed association between ambient UV in the past 10 years and cutaneous HPVs supports further study of the possible joint role of solar UV and HPV in causing skin cancer.