Hearing and vision screening for preschool children using mobile technology, South Africa

Susan Eksteen, Stefan Launer, Hannah Kuper, Robert H. Eikelboom, Andrew Bastawrous, De Wet Swanepoel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Objective To implement and evaluate a community-based hearing and vision screening programme for preschool children in the Western Cape, South Africa, supported by mobile health technology (mHealth) and delivered by community health workers (CHWs). Methods We trained four CHWs to provide dual sensory screening in preschool centres of Khayelitsha and Mitchells Plain during September 2017–December 2018. CHWs screened children aged 4–7 years using mHealth software applications on smartphones. We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between screening results and age, sex and test duration, and, for hearing, excessive background noise levels. Results CHWs screened 94.4% (8023/10 362) of eligible children at 271 centres at a cost of 5.63 United States dollars per child. The number of children who failed an initial hearing and visual test was 435 (5.4%) and 170 (2.1%), respectively. Hearing test failure was associated with longer test times (odds ratio, OR: 1.022; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.021–1.024) and excessive background noise levels at 1 kilohertz (kHz) (e.g. OR for left ear: 1.688; 95% CI: 1.198–2.377). Visual screening failure was associated with longer test duration (OR: 1.003; 95% CI: 1.002–1.005) and younger age (OR: 0.629; 95% CI: 0.520–0.761). Of the total screened, 111 (1.4%) children were diagnosed with a hearing and/or visual impairment. Conclusion mHealth-supported CHW-delivered hearing and vision screening in preschool centres provided a low-cost, acceptable and accessible service, contributing to lower referral numbers to resource-constrained public health institutions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)672-680
Number of pages9
JournalBulletin of the World Health Organization
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019
Externally publishedYes


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