Healthy lifestyles are associated with better vitamin D status in community-dwelling older men: The Health In Men Study (HIMS)

Xiaoying Liu, Kaye E. Brock, Tara C. Brennan-Speranza, Leon Flicker, Jonathan Golledge, Graeme J. Hankey, Christian M. Girgis, Bu B. Yeap

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objective: Older people are more prone to vitamin D deficiency than younger populations. Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with vitamin D status. We examined the influence of a combination of lifestyle factors on vitamin D status in older men. Participants and Measurements: In a population-based cohort study of older men (age ≥65 years), a lifestyle score was calculated from eight prudent health-related behaviours (smoking, exercise, alcohol, fish and meat consumption, adding salt, milk choices and obesity) collected via questionnaire at baseline. Blood samples were collected 5 years afterwards to measure plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels. Associations between lifestyles and the likelihood of having plasma 25OHD levels of ≥75 versus <75 nmol/L and ≥50 versus <50 nmol/L were tested using logistic regression models. Results: Of the 2717 men analysed, mean plasma 25OHD was 69.0 ± 23.5 nmol/L, with 20.7% having plasma 25OHD <50 nmol/L. Men engaging in ≥4 healthy lifestyle behaviours had 20% higher odds of plasma 25OHD ≥75 nmol/L (adjusted OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01−1.45) compared to those with <4 healthy behaviours. No association was found for 25OHD ≥50 nmol/L. Higher physical activity was the only individual component significantly associated with vitamin D sufficiency (highest vs. lowest quintiles of physical activity, adjusted OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.47−2.74 for 25OHD ≥50 nmol/L, adjusted OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.81−3.06 for 25OHD ≥75 nmol/L). Conclusion: Multiple healthy lifestyle behaviours are associated with better vitamin D status in older men. Further work is needed to determine the effects of promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, on vitamin D sufficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-173
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Endocrinology
Issue number2
Early online date10 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


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