Health-related impairments in young children with ADHD: a community-based study

E. Sciberras, M. Bisset, P. Hazell, J.M. Nicholson, V. Anderson, K. Lycett, B. Jongeling, D. Efron

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    7 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

    Background: We aimed to examine health-related impairments in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls and explore differences in children with ADHD by gender, ADHD subtype and mental health co-morbidity status. Methods: Children with ADHD (n = 177) and controls (n = 212) aged 6–8 years were recruited across 43 schools in Melbourne, Australia following a screening (Conners 3 ADHD Index) and case confirmation procedure (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV). Direct and blinded assessments of height and weight were used to calculate body mass index z-score and to identify overweight/obesity. Parents reported on child global health, sleep problems and physical injuries. Unadjusted and adjusted (socio-demographic factors and co-morbidities) logistic and linear regression were conducted to compare health-related impairments between (1) children with and without ADHD; (2) boys and girls with ADHD; (3) children with ADHD-inattentive and ADHD-combined types; and (4) children with ADHD by internalizing and externalizing disorder status. Results: Children with ADHD had poorer global health than controls when adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics (OR: 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.9); however, this attenuated after adjusting for co-morbidities. In adjusted analyses, children with ADHD had increased odds of moderate/large sleep problems (OR: 3.1; 95% CI 1.4, 6.8), compared with controls. There were no differences between children with and without ADHD in terms of physical injuries or overweight/obesity. Findings were similar when excluding children taking ADHD medication, and health-related impairments did not differ between boys and girls with ADHD. Children with ADHD-combined type had higher BMI z-scores than controls in adjusted analyses (P = 0.04). Children with ADHD and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing co-morbidities were particularly vulnerable to health-related impairments. Conclusion: Young children with ADHD experience a

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)709-717
    JournalChild: Care, Health and Development
    Volume42
    Issue number5
    Early online date12 Jun 2016
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Sep 2016

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