“Health care–associated pneumonia (HCAP) was introduced into guidelines because of concerns about the increasing prevalence of drug-resistant pathogens (DRPs) not covered by standard empirical therapy. We now know that DRPs are very localized phenomena with low rates in most sites. Although HCAP risk factors are associated with a higher mortality, this is driven by comorbidities rather than the pathogens. Empirical coverage of DRPs has generally not resulted in better patient outcomes. A far more nuanced approach must be taken for patients with risk factors for DRPs taking into account the local cause and severity of disease.