Happy relationships between marine sponges and sediments - a review and some observations from Australia

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperConference paper

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

© 2014 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.Being sessile filter feeders, sponges may be disadvantaged by sediments in many ways, e.g. through clogging and burial. However, in order to correctly recognize negative effects of sediments in the field, natural relationships of sponge taxa adapted to a life with sediments need to be understood. The present publication reviews available literature and provides observations on natural and beneficial interactions of sponges with sediments, distinguishing several strategies: (1) Saving energy through sediment incorporation, reducing or replacing spicule production commonly occurs in keratose, verongimorph, tethyid and poecilosclerid sponges, which often received scientific names referring to sediments. (2) Forming sediment crusts externally or embedded in surface tissues reinforces outer layers, provides shade, and for external crusts camouflage and shelter from spongivory and desiccation. External crusts often occur in the tethyids and axinellids, while surface armour is most common in keratose sponges. (3) Anchoring in soft sediments provides a selective advantage for space colonization. This is mainly achieved in the hexactinellid, polymastiid and spirophorine sponges by using spicules (predominantly in deeper water), commonly in endopsammic sponges by rootlets, basal agglutination and basal incorporation of particles, and in various groups by attachment to buried materials (shallow water). (4) Living at least partially embedded in sediments (psammobiosis) appears to be best developed in Oceanapia spp. and bioeroding sponges, generates shelter from various external conditions and reduces the risk of spongivory. Typical morphological characters of sediment-adapted sponges are thus sediment skeletons and surface crusts (reinforcement), stalks and fistules (elevation above sediments), spicule tufts and root-systems (anchoring).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationJournal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
EditorsNicole Webster
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages493-514
Number of pages22
Volume96
Edition2
ISBN (Print)00253154
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Event9th World Sponge Conference: New Frontiers in Sponge Science - Fremantle, Australia
Duration: 3 Nov 20139 Nov 2013

Conference

Conference9th World Sponge Conference
CountryAustralia
CityFremantle
Period3/11/139/11/13

Fingerprint

sponge
sediment
spicule
crust
shelter
filter feeder
desiccation
root system
skeleton
reinforcement
shallow water
colonization
deep water

Cite this

Schoenberg, C. H. L. (2016). Happy relationships between marine sponges and sediments - a review and some observations from Australia. In N. Webster (Ed.), Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (2 ed., Vol. 96, pp. 493-514). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315415001411
Schoenberg, Christine H.L. / Happy relationships between marine sponges and sediments - a review and some observations from Australia. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. editor / Nicole Webster. Vol. 96 2. ed. Cambridge University Press, 2016. pp. 493-514
@inproceedings{ee3a51cd505a4054adf76d5a456e0cf3,
title = "Happy relationships between marine sponges and sediments - a review and some observations from Australia",
abstract = "{\circledC} 2014 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.Being sessile filter feeders, sponges may be disadvantaged by sediments in many ways, e.g. through clogging and burial. However, in order to correctly recognize negative effects of sediments in the field, natural relationships of sponge taxa adapted to a life with sediments need to be understood. The present publication reviews available literature and provides observations on natural and beneficial interactions of sponges with sediments, distinguishing several strategies: (1) Saving energy through sediment incorporation, reducing or replacing spicule production commonly occurs in keratose, verongimorph, tethyid and poecilosclerid sponges, which often received scientific names referring to sediments. (2) Forming sediment crusts externally or embedded in surface tissues reinforces outer layers, provides shade, and for external crusts camouflage and shelter from spongivory and desiccation. External crusts often occur in the tethyids and axinellids, while surface armour is most common in keratose sponges. (3) Anchoring in soft sediments provides a selective advantage for space colonization. This is mainly achieved in the hexactinellid, polymastiid and spirophorine sponges by using spicules (predominantly in deeper water), commonly in endopsammic sponges by rootlets, basal agglutination and basal incorporation of particles, and in various groups by attachment to buried materials (shallow water). (4) Living at least partially embedded in sediments (psammobiosis) appears to be best developed in Oceanapia spp. and bioeroding sponges, generates shelter from various external conditions and reduces the risk of spongivory. Typical morphological characters of sediment-adapted sponges are thus sediment skeletons and surface crusts (reinforcement), stalks and fistules (elevation above sediments), spicule tufts and root-systems (anchoring).",
author = "Schoenberg, {Christine H.L.}",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1017/S0025315415001411",
language = "English",
isbn = "00253154",
volume = "96",
pages = "493--514",
editor = "Nicole Webster",
booktitle = "Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",
address = "United Kingdom",
edition = "2",

}

Schoenberg, CHL 2016, Happy relationships between marine sponges and sediments - a review and some observations from Australia. in N Webster (ed.), Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2 edn, vol. 96, Cambridge University Press, pp. 493-514, 9th World Sponge Conference, Fremantle, Australia, 3/11/13. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315415001411

Happy relationships between marine sponges and sediments - a review and some observations from Australia. / Schoenberg, Christine H.L.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. ed. / Nicole Webster. Vol. 96 2. ed. Cambridge University Press, 2016. p. 493-514.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperConference paper

TY - GEN

T1 - Happy relationships between marine sponges and sediments - a review and some observations from Australia

AU - Schoenberg, Christine H.L.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - © 2014 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.Being sessile filter feeders, sponges may be disadvantaged by sediments in many ways, e.g. through clogging and burial. However, in order to correctly recognize negative effects of sediments in the field, natural relationships of sponge taxa adapted to a life with sediments need to be understood. The present publication reviews available literature and provides observations on natural and beneficial interactions of sponges with sediments, distinguishing several strategies: (1) Saving energy through sediment incorporation, reducing or replacing spicule production commonly occurs in keratose, verongimorph, tethyid and poecilosclerid sponges, which often received scientific names referring to sediments. (2) Forming sediment crusts externally or embedded in surface tissues reinforces outer layers, provides shade, and for external crusts camouflage and shelter from spongivory and desiccation. External crusts often occur in the tethyids and axinellids, while surface armour is most common in keratose sponges. (3) Anchoring in soft sediments provides a selective advantage for space colonization. This is mainly achieved in the hexactinellid, polymastiid and spirophorine sponges by using spicules (predominantly in deeper water), commonly in endopsammic sponges by rootlets, basal agglutination and basal incorporation of particles, and in various groups by attachment to buried materials (shallow water). (4) Living at least partially embedded in sediments (psammobiosis) appears to be best developed in Oceanapia spp. and bioeroding sponges, generates shelter from various external conditions and reduces the risk of spongivory. Typical morphological characters of sediment-adapted sponges are thus sediment skeletons and surface crusts (reinforcement), stalks and fistules (elevation above sediments), spicule tufts and root-systems (anchoring).

AB - © 2014 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.Being sessile filter feeders, sponges may be disadvantaged by sediments in many ways, e.g. through clogging and burial. However, in order to correctly recognize negative effects of sediments in the field, natural relationships of sponge taxa adapted to a life with sediments need to be understood. The present publication reviews available literature and provides observations on natural and beneficial interactions of sponges with sediments, distinguishing several strategies: (1) Saving energy through sediment incorporation, reducing or replacing spicule production commonly occurs in keratose, verongimorph, tethyid and poecilosclerid sponges, which often received scientific names referring to sediments. (2) Forming sediment crusts externally or embedded in surface tissues reinforces outer layers, provides shade, and for external crusts camouflage and shelter from spongivory and desiccation. External crusts often occur in the tethyids and axinellids, while surface armour is most common in keratose sponges. (3) Anchoring in soft sediments provides a selective advantage for space colonization. This is mainly achieved in the hexactinellid, polymastiid and spirophorine sponges by using spicules (predominantly in deeper water), commonly in endopsammic sponges by rootlets, basal agglutination and basal incorporation of particles, and in various groups by attachment to buried materials (shallow water). (4) Living at least partially embedded in sediments (psammobiosis) appears to be best developed in Oceanapia spp. and bioeroding sponges, generates shelter from various external conditions and reduces the risk of spongivory. Typical morphological characters of sediment-adapted sponges are thus sediment skeletons and surface crusts (reinforcement), stalks and fistules (elevation above sediments), spicule tufts and root-systems (anchoring).

U2 - 10.1017/S0025315415001411

DO - 10.1017/S0025315415001411

M3 - Conference paper

SN - 00253154

VL - 96

SP - 493

EP - 514

BT - Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

A2 - Webster, Nicole

PB - Cambridge University Press

ER -

Schoenberg CHL. Happy relationships between marine sponges and sediments - a review and some observations from Australia. In Webster N, editor, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2 ed. Vol. 96. Cambridge University Press. 2016. p. 493-514 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315415001411