Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been recently applied for various diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The unique properties of these nanoparticles (NPs), such as relative ease of synthesis in various sizes, shapes and charges, stability, high drug-loading capacity and relative availability for modification accompanied by non-cytotoxicity and biocompatibility, make them an ideal field of research in bio-nanotechnology. Moreover, their potential to alleviate various inflammatory factors, nitrite species, and reactive oxygen production and the capacity to deliver therapeutic agents has attracted attention for further studies in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, the characteristics of GNPs and surface modification can modulate their toxicity, biodistribution, biocompatibility, and effects. This review discusses in vitro and in vivo effects of GNPs and their functionalized forms in managing various autoimmune disorders (Ads) such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis.