Global Resources of Genetic Diversity in Peanut

Noelle A. Barkley, Hari D. Upadhyaya, Boshou Liao, C. Corley Holbrook

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperChapter

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Peanut or groundnut (. Arachis hypogaea L.) is an annual herb, with geocarpic fruits, and an indeterminate growth habit. It is classified as a legume in the plant family Fabaceae. Carl Linneaus first described the cultivated species in 1753, as A. hypogaea L. Cultivated peanut can be classified into two subspecies, fastigiata and hypogaea, based on the presence or absence of floral axes on the main stem. They can be further divided into six botanical varieties (subspecies hypogaea: var. hirsuta, and var. hypogaea; subspecies fastigiata: var. aequatoriana, var. fastigiata, var. peruviana, and var. vulgaris) based on a range of morphological characteristics. The cultivated peanut is a self-pollinating allotetraploid (AABB genome, 2. n=. 4. x=. 40) putatively derived from the natural hybridization of two wild diploid species Arachis duranensis (AA genome, 2. n=. 2. x=. 20) and Arachis ipaënsis (BB genome, 2. n=. 2. x=. 20). It is well documented that cultivated peanut has a narrow genetic base which was likely due to a single polyploidization event that isolated it from the wild species and created small founder populations and a significant genetic bottleneck in the cultigen. Genetic variability is known to decline in proportion to the severity of the bottleneck and the smaller the population and the longer it remains small the more the allelic diversity erodes with the low frequency alleles being most at risk during a bottleneck. Nucleotide substitution rates suggest that the A, B, and K (. Arachis batizocoi) genomes diverged fairly recently, between 2.3 and 2.9. million. years ago. Large germplasm collections are maintained in India, China, and the United States.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPeanuts: Genetics, Processing, and Utilization
EditorsThomas Stalker, Richard Wilson
PublisherElsevier
Pages67-109
Number of pages43
ISBN (Print)9781630670382
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2016

Fingerprint

Genes
Genome
Fruits
Fabaceae
Substitution reactions
Nucleotides
Arachis
Diploidy
Gene Frequency
Population
Habits
India
Fruit
China
Growth

Cite this

Barkley, N. A., Upadhyaya, H. D., Liao, B., & Corley Holbrook, C. (2016). Global Resources of Genetic Diversity in Peanut. In T. Stalker, & R. Wilson (Eds.), Peanuts: Genetics, Processing, and Utilization (pp. 67-109). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-63067-038-2.00003-4
Barkley, Noelle A. ; Upadhyaya, Hari D. ; Liao, Boshou ; Corley Holbrook, C. / Global Resources of Genetic Diversity in Peanut. Peanuts: Genetics, Processing, and Utilization. editor / Thomas Stalker ; Richard Wilson. Elsevier, 2016. pp. 67-109
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Barkley, NA, Upadhyaya, HD, Liao, B & Corley Holbrook, C 2016, Global Resources of Genetic Diversity in Peanut. in T Stalker & R Wilson (eds), Peanuts: Genetics, Processing, and Utilization. Elsevier, pp. 67-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-63067-038-2.00003-4

Global Resources of Genetic Diversity in Peanut. / Barkley, Noelle A.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Liao, Boshou; Corley Holbrook, C.

Peanuts: Genetics, Processing, and Utilization. ed. / Thomas Stalker; Richard Wilson. Elsevier, 2016. p. 67-109.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperChapter

TY - CHAP

T1 - Global Resources of Genetic Diversity in Peanut

AU - Barkley, Noelle A.

AU - Upadhyaya, Hari D.

AU - Liao, Boshou

AU - Corley Holbrook, C.

PY - 2016/1/4

Y1 - 2016/1/4

N2 - Peanut or groundnut (. Arachis hypogaea L.) is an annual herb, with geocarpic fruits, and an indeterminate growth habit. It is classified as a legume in the plant family Fabaceae. Carl Linneaus first described the cultivated species in 1753, as A. hypogaea L. Cultivated peanut can be classified into two subspecies, fastigiata and hypogaea, based on the presence or absence of floral axes on the main stem. They can be further divided into six botanical varieties (subspecies hypogaea: var. hirsuta, and var. hypogaea; subspecies fastigiata: var. aequatoriana, var. fastigiata, var. peruviana, and var. vulgaris) based on a range of morphological characteristics. The cultivated peanut is a self-pollinating allotetraploid (AABB genome, 2. n=. 4. x=. 40) putatively derived from the natural hybridization of two wild diploid species Arachis duranensis (AA genome, 2. n=. 2. x=. 20) and Arachis ipaënsis (BB genome, 2. n=. 2. x=. 20). It is well documented that cultivated peanut has a narrow genetic base which was likely due to a single polyploidization event that isolated it from the wild species and created small founder populations and a significant genetic bottleneck in the cultigen. Genetic variability is known to decline in proportion to the severity of the bottleneck and the smaller the population and the longer it remains small the more the allelic diversity erodes with the low frequency alleles being most at risk during a bottleneck. Nucleotide substitution rates suggest that the A, B, and K (. Arachis batizocoi) genomes diverged fairly recently, between 2.3 and 2.9. million. years ago. Large germplasm collections are maintained in India, China, and the United States.

AB - Peanut or groundnut (. Arachis hypogaea L.) is an annual herb, with geocarpic fruits, and an indeterminate growth habit. It is classified as a legume in the plant family Fabaceae. Carl Linneaus first described the cultivated species in 1753, as A. hypogaea L. Cultivated peanut can be classified into two subspecies, fastigiata and hypogaea, based on the presence or absence of floral axes on the main stem. They can be further divided into six botanical varieties (subspecies hypogaea: var. hirsuta, and var. hypogaea; subspecies fastigiata: var. aequatoriana, var. fastigiata, var. peruviana, and var. vulgaris) based on a range of morphological characteristics. The cultivated peanut is a self-pollinating allotetraploid (AABB genome, 2. n=. 4. x=. 40) putatively derived from the natural hybridization of two wild diploid species Arachis duranensis (AA genome, 2. n=. 2. x=. 20) and Arachis ipaënsis (BB genome, 2. n=. 2. x=. 20). It is well documented that cultivated peanut has a narrow genetic base which was likely due to a single polyploidization event that isolated it from the wild species and created small founder populations and a significant genetic bottleneck in the cultigen. Genetic variability is known to decline in proportion to the severity of the bottleneck and the smaller the population and the longer it remains small the more the allelic diversity erodes with the low frequency alleles being most at risk during a bottleneck. Nucleotide substitution rates suggest that the A, B, and K (. Arachis batizocoi) genomes diverged fairly recently, between 2.3 and 2.9. million. years ago. Large germplasm collections are maintained in India, China, and the United States.

KW - Evolution

KW - Genomes

KW - Germplasm collections

KW - Interspecific hybridization

KW - Peanut

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84966929808&partnerID=8YFLogxK

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U2 - 10.1016/B978-1-63067-038-2.00003-4

DO - 10.1016/B978-1-63067-038-2.00003-4

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9781630670382

SP - 67

EP - 109

BT - Peanuts: Genetics, Processing, and Utilization

A2 - Stalker, Thomas

A2 - Wilson, Richard

PB - Elsevier

ER -

Barkley NA, Upadhyaya HD, Liao B, Corley Holbrook C. Global Resources of Genetic Diversity in Peanut. In Stalker T, Wilson R, editors, Peanuts: Genetics, Processing, and Utilization. Elsevier. 2016. p. 67-109 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-63067-038-2.00003-4