Global, regional, national, and selected subnational levels of stillbirths, neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

H. Wang, Z.A. A. Bhutta, M.M. M. Coates, M. Coggeshall, L. Dandona, K. Diallo, E.B. B. Franca, M. Fraser, N. Fullman, P.W. W. Gething, S.I. I. Hay, Y. Kinfu, M. Kita, X.R. R. Kulikoff, H.J. J. Larson, J. Liang, X. Liang, M. Lind, A.D. D. Lopez, R. LozanoG.A. A. Mensah, J.B. B. Mikesell, A.H. H. Mokdad, M.D. D. Mooney, G. Nguyen, I. Rakovac, J.A. A. Salomon, N. Silpakit, A. Sligar, R.J.D. J.D. Sorensen, T. Vos, J. Zhu, A.A. A. Abajobir, K.H. H. Abate, K.M. M. Abbas, F. Abd-Allah, A.M. M. Abdulle, S.F. F. Abera, V. Aboyans, B. Abraham, I. Abubakar, L.J. J. Abu-Raddad, N.M.E. M.E. Abu-Rmeileh, G.Y. Y. Abyu, T. Achoki, A.O. O. Adebiyi, I.A. A. Adedeji, A.L. L. Adelekan, A.K. K. Adou, A. Agarwal, O.N. N. Ajala, T.F. F. Akinyemiju, N. Akseer, K. Alam, N.K.M. K.M. Alam, D. Alasfoor, R.W. W. Aldridge, M.A. A. Alegretti, Z.A. A. Alemu, R. Ali, A. Alkerwi, F. Alla, R. Al-Raddadi, U. Alsharif, K.A. A. Altirkawi, E.A. A. Martin, N. Alvis-Guzman, A.T. T. Amare, A. Amberbir, A.K. K. Amegah, E.A. A. Ameh, W. Ammar, S.M. M. Amrock, H.H. H. Andersen, G.M. M. Anderson, C.A.T. A.T. Antonio, J. Ärnlöv, A. Artaman, H. Asayesh, R.J. J. Asghar, R. Assadi, S. Atique, E.F.G.A. F.G.A. Avokpaho, A. Awasthi, B.P.A. P.A. Quintanilla, U. Bacha, A. Badawi, K. Balakrishnan, A. Banerjee, B.F. F. Banigbe, A. Barac, R.M. M. Barber, S.L. L. Barker-Collo, T. Bärnighausen, L.H. H. Barrero, T.A. A. Bayou, Y.T. T. Bayou, S. Bazargan-Hejazi, J. Beardsley, N. Bedi, T. Bekele, M.L. L. Bell, A.K. K. Bello, D.A. A. Bennett, I.M. M. Bensenor, A. Berhane, E. Bernabé, B.D. D. Betsu, S. Bhatt, S. Biadgilign, B. Bikbov, S.M. M. Birlik, D. Bisanzio, E. Bjertness, J.D. D. Blore, R.R.A. R.A. Bourne, M. Brainin, A. Brazinova, N.J.K. J.K. Breitborde, A. Brown, G.C. C. Buckle, M. Burch, Z.A. A. Butt, I.R. R. Campos-Nonato, J.C. C. Campuzano, R. Cárdenas, D.O. O. Carpenter, J.J. J. Carrero, A. Carter, D.C. C. Casey, C.A. A. Castañeda-Orjuela, J.C. C. Rivas, R.E. E. Castro, F. Catalá-López, K. Cercy, H.-Y. -Y. Chang, J.-C. -C. Chang, C.E. E. Chibueze, V.H. H. Chisumpa, J.-Y.J. -Y.J. Choi, R. Chowdhury, D.J. J. Christopher, L.G. G. Ciobanu, S.M. M. Colquhoun, C. Cooper, L. Cornaby, S.A. A. Damtew, H. Danawi, R. Dandona, J. das Neves, A.C. C. Davis, P. de Jager, D. De Leo, L. Degenhardt, K. Deribe, A. Deribew, D.C.D. C.D. Jarlais, G.A. A. deVeber, S.D. D. Dharmaratne, P.K. K. Dhillon, E.L. L. Ding, P.P. P. Doshi, K.E. E. Doyle, L. Duan, M. Dubey, H. Ebrahimi, C.L. L. Ellingsen, I. Elyazar, A.Y. Y. Endries, S.P. P. Ermakov, B. Eshrati, A. Esteghamati, E.J.A. J.A. Faraon, T.A. A. Farid, C.S.E.S. S.E.S. Farinha, A. Faro, M.S. S. Farvid, F. Farzadfar, S.-M. -M. Fereshtehnejad, J.C. C. Fernandes, F. Fischer, J.R.A. R.A. Fitchett, N. Foigt, R.C. C. Franklin, J. Friedman, T. Fürst, K. Gambashidze, A. Gamkrelidze, P. Ganguly, T. Gebre, T.T. T. Gebrehiwot, A.T. T. Gebremedhin, A.A. A. Gebru, J.M. M. Geleijnse, B.D. D. Gessner, I.A.M. A.M. Ginawi, A.Z. Z. Giref, M.D. D. Gishu, H. Gomez-Dantes, P. Gona, A. Goodridge, S.V. V. Gopalani, A. Goto, H.N. N. Gouda, H.C. C. Gugnani, Y. Guo, R. Gupta, V. Gupta, B. Gyawali, J.A. A. Haagsma, N. Hafezi-Nejad, D. Haile, A.D. D. Hailu, G.B. B. Hailu, R.R. R. Hamadeh, J. Hancock, A.J. J. Handal, Graeme J. Hankey, H.L. L. Harb, S. Harikrishnan, K.M. M. Harun, R. Havmoeller, R.J. J. Hay, I.B. B. Heredia-Pi, H.W. W. Hoek, M. Horino, N. Horita, H.D. D. Hosgood, P.J. J. Hotez, D.G. G. Hoy, M. Hsairi, G. Hu, C. Huang, J.J. J. Huang, H. Huang, L. Huiart, K.M. M. Iburg, B.T. T. Idrisov, K. Innos, K.H. H. Jacobsen, N. Jahanmehr, M. Javanbakht, A.U. U. Jayatilleke, S.H. H. Jee, P. Jeemon, V. Jha, G. Jiang, Y. Jiang, T. Jibat, Y. Jin, J.B. B. Jonas, Z. Kabir, Y. Kalkonde, R. Kamal, H. Kan, G. Kang, A. Karch, C.K. K. Karema, A. Kasaeian, A. Kaul, N. Kawakami, J.F. F. Kayibanda, K. Kazanjan, P.N. N. Keiyoro, A.H. H. Kemp, A.P. P. Kengne, A. Keren, M. Kereselidze, C.N. N. Kesavachandran, Y.S. S. Khader, I.A. A. Khalil, A.R. R. Khan, E.A. A. Khan, Y.-H. -H. Khang, I. Khonelidze, J. Khubchandani, C.-I. -I. Kim, D. Kim, Y.J. J. Kim, N. Kissoon, M. Kivipelto, L.D. D. Knibbs, Y. Kokubo, S. Kosen, P.A. A. Koul, A. Koyanagi, B.K. K. Defo, B.K. K. Bicer, A.A. A. Kudom, G.A. A. Kumar, H.H. H. Kyu, D.K. K. Lal, R. Lalloo, H. Lam, J.O. O. Lam, V.C. C. Lansingh, A. Larsson, J. Leigh, R. Leung, Y. Li, M.P. P. Lindsay, P.Y. Y. Liu, S. Liu, B.K. K. Lloyd, W.D. D. Lo, G. Logroscino, N. Low, R. Lunevicius, R.A. A. Lyons, S. Ma, H.M.A.E. M.A.E. Razek, M.M.A.E. M.A.E. Razek, M. Mahdavi, M. Majdan, A. Majeed, R. Malekzadeh, C.C. C. Mapoma, W. Marcenes, J. Martinez-Raga, M.B. B. Marzan, F. Masiye, J.J. J. McGrath, P.A. A. Meaney, A. Mehari, M.M. M. Mehndiratta, A.B. B. Mekonnen, Y.A. A. Melaku, P. Memiah, Z.A. A. Memish, W. Mendoza, A. Meretoja, T.J. J. Meretoja, F.A. A. Mhimbira, T.R. R. Miller, E.J. J. Mills, M. Mirarefin, A. Misganaw, C.N. N. Mock, K.A. A. Mohammad, A. Mohammadi, S. Mohammed, L. Monasta, J.C.M. C.M. Hernandez, M. Montico, A.R. R. Moore, M. Moradi-Lakeh, L. Morawska, R. Mori, U.O. O. Mueller, G.A.V. A.V. Murphy, S. Murthy, J.B. B. Nachega, A. Naheed, K.S. S. Naidoo, L. Naldi, D. Nand, V. Nangia, S. Neupane, C.R. R. Newton, J.N. N. Newton, M. Ng, F.N. N. Ngalesoni, P. Nguhiu, Q.L. L. Nguyen, M.I. I. Nisar, P.M.N. M.N. Pete, O.F. F. Norheim, R.E. E. Norman, F.A. A. Ogbo, I.-H. -H. Oh, F.A. A. Ojelabi, P.R. R. Olivares, B.O. O. Olusanya, J.O. O. Olusanya, E. Oren, E. Ota, M. PA, E.-K. -K. Park, H.-Y. -Y. Park, M. Parsaeian, A.J.P. J.P. Caicedo, S.B. B. Patten, J.M. M. Pedro, D.M. M. Pereira, N. Perico, K. Pesudovs, M. Petzold, M.R. R. Phillips, J.D. D. Pillay, F. Pishgar, S. Polinder, D. Pope, S. Popova, F. Pourmalek, M. Qorbani, R.H.S. H.S. Rabiee, A. Rafay, V. Rahimi-Movaghar, M. Rahman, M.H.U. H.U. Rahman, S.U. U. Rahman, R.K. K. Rai, M. Raju, U. Ram, S.M. M. Rana, C.L. L. Ranabhat, P. Rao, A.H. H. Refaat, G. Remuzzi, S. Resnikoff, A. Reynolds, D. Rojas-Rueda, L. Ronfani, G. Roshandel, G.A. A. Roth, A. Roy, G.M. M. Ruhago, R. Sagar, M.M. M. Saleh, J.R. R. Sanabria, M.D. D. Sanchez-Niño, I.S. S. Santos, J.V. V. Santos, R. Sarmiento-Suarez, B. Sartorius, M. Satpathy, M. Savic, M. Sawhney, I.J.C. J.C. Schneider, B. Schöttker, D.C. C. Schwebel, S. Seedat, S.G. G. Sepanlou, E.E. E. Servan-Mori, T. Setegn, S. Shahraz, M.A. A. Shaikh, M. Shakh-Nazarova, R. Sharma, J. She, S. Sheikhbahaei, J. Shen, K.N. N. Sheth, K. Shibuya, H.H. H. Shin, M.-J. -J. Shin, R. Shiri, I. Shuie, I.D. D. Sigfusdottir, D.A.S. A.S. Silva, J. Silverberg, E.P. P. Simard, S. Sindi, A. Singh, J.A. A. Singh, O.P. P. Singh, P.K. K. Singh, V. Singh, J.B. B. Soriano, S. Soshnikov, L.A. A. Sposato, C.T. T. Sreeramareddy, V. Stathopoulou, N. Steel, K. Stroumpoulis, L. Sturua, B.F. F. Sunguya, S. Swaminathan, B.L. L. Sykes, C.E.I. E.I. Szoeke, R. Tabarés-Seisdedos, M. Tavakkoli, B. Taye, B.A. A. Tedla, W.M. M. Tefera, T. Tekle, G.T. T. Shifa, A.S. S. Terkawi, F.H. H. Tesfay, G.A. A. Tessema, K. Thapa, A.J. J. Thomson, A.L. L. Thorne-Lyman, R. Tobe-Gai, M. Tonelli, R. Topor-Madry, F. Topouzis, B.X. X. Tran, C. Troeger, T. Truelsen, Z.T. T. Dimbuene, A.K. K. Tura, S. Tyrovolas, K.N. N. Ukwaja, C.J. J. Uneke, O.A. A. Uthman, M. Vaezghasemi, T. Vasankari, A.M.N. M.N. Vasconcelos, N. Venketasubramanian, R.K. K. Verma, F.S. S. Violante, S.K. K. Vladimirov, V.V. V. Vlassov, S.E. E. Vollset, L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Weichenthal, E. Weiderpass, R.G. G. Weintraub, D.J. J. Weiss, A. Werdecker, R. Westerman, M.-A. -A. Widdowson, T. Wijeratne, T.N. N. Williams, C.S. S. Wiysonge, C.D.A. D.A. Wolfe, I. Wolfe, S. Won, M. Wubshet, Q. Xiao, G. Xu, A.K. K. Yadav, B. Yakob, Y. Yano, M. Yaseri, P. Ye, H.G. G. Yebyo, P. Yip, N. Yonemoto, S.-J. -J. Yoon, M.Z. Z. Younis, C. Yu, Z. Zaidi, M.E.S. E.S. Zaki, H. Zeeb, H. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zheng, M. Zhou, S. Zodpey, C.J.L. J.L. Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

© 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license. Background Established in 2000, Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) catalysed extraordinary political, financial, and social commitments to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. At the country level, the pace of progress in improving child survival has varied markedly, highlighting a crucial need to further examine potential drivers of accelerated or slowed decreases in child mortality. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides an analytical framework to comprehensively assess these trends for under-5 mortality, age-specific and cause-specific mortality among children under 5 years, and stillbirths by geography over time. Methods Drawing from analytical approaches developed and refined in previous iterations of the GBD study, we generated updated estimates of child mortality by age group (neonatal, post-neonatal, ages 1–4 years, and under 5) for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational geographies, from 1980–2015. We also estimated numbers and rates of stillbirths for these geographies and years. Gaussian process regression with data source adjustments for sampling and non-sampling bias was applied to synthesise input data for under-5 mortality for each geography. Age-specific mortality estimates were generated through a two-stage age–sex splitting process, and stillbirth estimates were produced with a mixed-effects model, which accounted for variable stillbirth definitions and data source-specific biases. For GBD 2015, we did a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in child mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and annualised rates of decrease for under-5 mortality and stillbirths as they related to the Soci-demographic Index (SDI). Second, we examined the ratio of recorded and expected levels of child mortality, on the basis of SDI, across geographies, as well as differences in
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1725-1774
Number of pages50
JournalThe Lancet
Volume388
Issue number10053
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016

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