Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

T. Vos, C. Allen, M. Arora, R.M. M. Barber, Z.A. A. Bhutta, A. Brown, A. Carter, D.C. C. Casey, F.J. J. Charlson, A.Z. Z. Chen, M. Coggeshall, L. Cornaby, L. Dandona, D.J. J. Dicker, T. Dilegge, H.E. E. Erskine, A.J. J. Ferrari, C. Fitzmaurice, T. Fleming, M.H. H. ForouzanfarN. Fullman, P.W. W. Gething, E.M. M. Goldberg, N. Graetz, J.A. A. Haagsma, C.O. O. Johnson, N.J. J. Kassebaum, T. Kawashima, L. Kemmer, I.A. A. Khalil, Y. Kinfu, H.H. H. Kyu, J. Leung, X. Liang, S.S. S. Lim, A.D. D. Lopez, R. Lozano, L. Marczak, G.A. A. Mensah, A.H. H. Mokdad, M. Naghavi, G. Nguyen, E. Nsoesie, H. Olsen, D.M. M. Pigott, C. Pinho, Z. Rankin, N. Reinig, J.A. A. Salomon, L. Sandar, A. Smith, J. Stanaway, C. Steiner, S. Teeple, B.A. A. Thomas, C. Troeger, J.A. A. Wagner, H. Wang, V. Wanga, H.A. A. Whiteford, L. Zoeckler, A.A. A. Abajobir, K.H. H. Abate, C. Abbafati, K.M. M. Abbas, F. Abd-Allah, B. Abraham, I. Abubakar, L.J. J. Abu-Raddad, N.M.E. M.E. Abu-Rmeileh, I.N. N. Ackerman, A.O. O. Adebiyi, Z. Ademi, A.K. K. Adou, K.A. A. Afanvi, E.E. E. Agardh, A. Agarwal, A.A. A. Kiadaliri, H. Ahmadieh, O.N. N. Ajala, R.O. O. Akinyemi, N. Akseer, Z. Al-Aly, K. Alam, N.K.M. K.M. Alam, S.F. F. Aldhahri, M.A. A. Alegretti, Z.A. A. Alemu, L.T. T. Alexander, S. Alhabib, R. Ali, A. Alkerwi, F. Alla, P. Allebeck, R. Al-Raddadi, U. Alsharif, K.A. A. Altirkawi, N. Alvis-Guzman, A.T. T. Amare, A. Amberbir, H. Amini, W. Ammar, S.M. M. Amrock, H.H. H. Andersen, G.M. M. Anderson, B.O. O. Anderson, C.A.T. A.T. Antonio, A.F. F. Aregay, J. Ärnlöv, A. Artaman, H. Asayesh, R. Assadi, S. Atique, E.F.G.A. F.G.A. Avokpaho, A. Awasthi, B.P.A. P.A. Quintanilla, P. Azzopardi, U. Bacha, A. Badawi, K. Balakrishnan, A. Banerjee, A. Barac, S.L. L. Barker-Collo, T. Bärnighausen, L. Barregard, L.H. H. Barrero, A. Basu, S. Bazargan-Hejazi, B. Bell, M.L. L. Bell, D.A. A. Bennett, I.M. M. Bensenor, H. Benzian, A. Berhane, E. Bernabé, B.D. D. Betsu, A.S. S. Beyene, N. Bhala, S. Bhatt, S. Biadgilign, K. Bienhoff, B. Bikbov, S. Biryukov, D. Bisanzio, E. Bjertness, J. Blore, R. Borschmann, S. Boufous, M. Brainin, A. Brazinova, N.J.K. J.K. Breitborde, J. Brown, R. Buchbinder, G.C. C. Buckle, Z.A. A. Butt, B. Calabria, I.R. R. Campos-Nonato, J.C. C. Campuzano, H. Carabin, R. Cárdenas, D.O. O. Carpenter, J.J. J. Carrero, C.A. A. Castañeda-Orjuela, J.C. C. Rivas, F. Catalá-López, J.-C. -C. Chang, P.P.-C. P.-C. Chiang, C.E. E. Chibueze, V.H. H. Chisumpa, J.-Y.J. -Y.J. Choi, R. Chowdhury, H. Christensen, D.J. J. Christopher, L.G. G. Ciobanu, M. Cirillo, M.M. M. Coates, S.M. M. Colquhoun, C. Cooper, M. Cortinovis, J.A. A. Crump, S.A. A. Damtew, R. Dandona, F. Daoud, P.I. I. Dargan, J. das Neves, G. Davey, A.C. C. Davis, D.D. D. Leo, L. Degenhardt, L.C.D. C.D. Gobbo, R.P. P. Dellavalle, K. Deribe, A. Deribew, S. Derrett, D.C.D. C.D. Jarlais, S.D. D. Dharmaratne, P.K. K. Dhillon, C. Diaz-Torné, E.L. L. Ding, T.R. R. Driscoll, L. Duan, M. Dubey, B.B. B. Duncan, H. Ebrahimi, R.G. G. Ellenbogen, I. Elyazar, M. Endres, A.Y. Y. Endries, S.P. P. Ermakov, B. Eshrati, K. Estep, T.A. A. Farid, C.S.E.S. S.E.S. Farinha, A. Faro, M.S. S. Farvid, F. Farzadfar, V.L. L. Feigin, D.T. T. Felson, S.-M. -M. Fereshtehnejad, J.G. G. Fernandes, J.C. C. Fernandes, F. Fischer, J.R.A. R.A. Fitchett, K. Foreman, F.G.R. G.R. Fowkes, J. Fox, R.C. C. Franklin, J. Friedman, J. Frostad, T. Fürst, N.D. D. Futran, B. Gabbe, P. Ganguly, F.G. G. Gankpé, T. Gebre, T.T. T. Gebrehiwot, A.T. T. Gebremedhin, J.M. M. Geleijnse, B.D. D. Gessner, K.B. B. Gibney, I.A.M. A.M. Ginawi, A.Z. Z. Giref, M. Giroud, M.D. D. Gishu, E. Glaser, W.W. W. Godwin, H. Gomez-Dantes, P. Gona, A. Goodridge, S.V. V. Gopalani, C.C. C. Gotay, A. Goto, H.N. N. Gouda, R. Grainger, F. Greaves, F. Guillemin, Y. Guo, R. Gupta, V. Gupta, R.A. A. Gutiérrez, D. Haile, A.D. D. Hailu, G.B. B. Hailu, Y.A. A. Halasa, R.R. R. Hamadeh, S. Hamidi, M. Hammami, J. Hancock, A.J. J. Handal, Graeme J. Hankey, Y. Hao, H.L. L. Harb, S. Harikrishnan, J.M. M. Haro, R. Havmoeller, R.J. J. Hay, I.B. B. Heredia-Pi, P. Heydarpour, H.W. W. Hoek, M. Horino, N. Horita, H.D. D. Hosgood, D.G. G. Hoy, A.S. S. Htet, H. Huang, J.J. J. Huang, C. Huynh, M. Iannarone, K.M. M. Iburg, K. Innos, M. Inoue, V.J. J. Iyer, K.H. H. Jacobsen, N. Jahanmehr, M.B. B. Jakovljevic, M. Javanbakht, A.U. U. Jayatilleke, S.H. H. Jee, P. Jeemon, P.N. N. Jensen, Y. Jiang, T. Jibat, A. Jimenez-Corona, Y. Jin, J.B. B. Jonas, Z. Kabir, Y. Kalkonde, R. Kamal, H. Kan, A. Karch, C.K. K. Karema, C. Karimkhani, A. Kasaeian, A. Kaul, N. Kawakami, P.N. N. Keiyoro, A.H. H. Kemp, A. Keren, C.N. N. Kesavachandran, Y.S. S. Khader, A.R. R. Khan, E.A. A. Khan, Y.-H. -H. Khang, S. Khera, T.A.M. A.M. Khoja, J. Khubchandani, C. Kieling, P. Kim, C.-I. -I. Kim, D. Kim, Y.J. J. Kim, N. Kissoon, L.D. D. Knibbs, A.K. K. Knudsen, Y. Kokubo, D. Kolte, J.A. A. Kopec, S. Kosen, G.A. A. Kotsakis, P.A. A. Koul, A. Koyanagi, M. Kravchenko, B.K. K. Defo, B.K. K. Bicer, A.A. A. Kudom, E.J. J. Kuipers, G.A. A. Kumar, M. Kutz, G.F. F. Kwan, A. Lal, R. Lalloo, T. Lallukka, H. Lam, J.O. O. Lam, S.M. M. Langan, A. Larsson, P.M. M. Lavados, J.L. L. Leasher, J. Leigh, R. Leung, M. Levi, Y. Li, J. Liang, S. Liu, Y. Liu, B.K. K. Lloyd, W.D. D. Lo, G. Logroscino, K.J. J. Looker, P.A. A. Lotufo, R. Lunevicius, R.A. A. Lyons, M.T. T. Mackay, M. Magdy, A.E. E. Razek, M. Mahdavi, M. Majdan, A. Majeed, R. Malekzadeh, W. Marcenes, D.J. J. Margolis, J. Martinez-Raga, F. Masiye, J. Massano, S.T. T. McGarvey, J.J. J. McGrath, M. McKee, B.J. J. McMahon, P.A. A. Meaney, A. Mehari, F. Mejia-Rodriguez, A.B. B. Mekonnen, Y.A. A. Melaku, P. Memiah, Z.A. A. Memish, W. Mendoza, A. Meretoja, T.J. J. Meretoja, F.A. A. Mhimbira, T.R. R. Miller, E.J. J. Mills, M. Mirarefin, P.B. B. Mitchell, C.N. N. Mock, A. Mohammadi, S. Mohammed, L. Monasta, J.C.M. C.M. Hernandez, M. Montico, M.D. D. Mooney, M. Moradi-Lakeh, L. Morawska, U.O. O. Mueller, E. Mullany, J.E. E. Mumford, M.E. E. Murdoch, J.B. B. Nachega, G. Nagel, A. 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Abstract

© 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license Background Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015. Methods We estimated incidence and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60?900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010 and GBD 2013. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies where the complexity of the disease was not suited to DisMod-MR 2.1 or where incidence and prevalence needed to be determined from other data. For GBD 2015 we created a summary indicator that combines measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility (the Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) and used it to compare observed patterns of health loss to the expected pattern for countries or locations with similar SDI scores. Findings We generated 9·3 billion estimates from the various combinations of prevalence, incidence, and YLDs for causes, sequelae, and impairments by age, sex, geography, and year. In 2015, two causes had acute incidences in exc
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1545-1602
Number of pages58
JournalThe Lancet
Volume388
Issue number10053
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016

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