Grasses form an important component of grassy woodlands, although their response to. re has been understudied. In this study, fire germination responses of 22 Poaceae species from an endangered grassy-woodland community in eastern Australia were investigated. Seeds of 20 native and two exotic species were subjected to heat (no heat, 40, 80 and 120 degrees C) and smoke treatment (10% dilution smoke water) and the percentage germination was compared. Germination response of species showed no consistent pattern to phylogeny and was highly variable. Germination in six species was unaffected by the application of heat or smoke. In five species, heat, irrespective of smoke application, influenced germination. Smoke, irrespective of heat treatment, influenced six species. For a further six species, the effect of smoke varied with temperature. These results suggest that. re regimes will influence the recruitment of grass species differentially and maintaining regional species richness is likely to require the maintenance of a heterogeneous. re regime across the landscape.