Genome-wide scans were conducted for tuberculosis and leprosy per se in Brazil. At stage 1,405 markers (10 cM map) were typed in 16 (178 individuals) tuberculosis and 21 (173 individuals) leprosy families. Nonparametric multipoint analysis detected 8 and 9 chromosomal regions respectively with provisional evidence (P<0.05) for linkage. At stage 2, 58 markers from positive regions were typed in a second set of 22 (176 individuals) tuberculosis families, with 22 additional markers typed in all families; 42 positive markers in 50 (192 individuals) new leprosy families, and 30 additional markers in all families. Three regions (10q26.13, 11q12.3, 20p12.1) retained suggestive evidence (peak LOD scores 1.31, 1.85, 1.78; P=0.007, 0.0018, 0.0021) for linkage to tuberculosis, 3 regions (6p21.32, 17q22, 20p13) to leprosy (HLA-DQA, 3.23, P=5.8x10(-5); D17S1868, 2.38, P=0.0005; D20S889, 1.51, P=0.004). The peak at D20S889 for leprosy is 3.5 Mb distal to that reported at D20S115 for leprosy in India. (151 words).