Waterlogging is an environmental stress, which severely affects barley growth and develop-ment. Limited availability of oxygen in the root zone negatively affects the metabolism of the whole plant. Adventitious roots (AR) and root cortical aerenchyma (RCA) formation are the most important adaptive traits that contribute to a plant’s ability to survive in waterlogged soil conditions. This study used a genome-wide association (GWAS) approach using 18,132 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a panel of 697 barley genotypes to reveal marker trait associations (MTA) conferring the above adaptive traits. Experiments were conducted over two consecutive years in tanks filled with soil and then validated in field experiments. GWAS analysis was conducted using general linear models (GLM), mixed linear models (MLM), and fixed and random model circulating probability unification models (FarmCPU model), with the FarmCPU showing to be the best suited model. Six and five significant (approximately −log10 (p) ≥ 5.5) MTA were identified for AR and RCA formation under waterlogged conditions, respectively. The highest −log10 (p) MTA for adventitious root and aerenchyma formation were approximately 9 and 8 on chromosome 2H and 4H, respectively. The combination of different MTA showed to be more effective in forming RCA and producing more AR under waterlogging stress. Genes from major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) families for AR formation, and ethylene responsive factor (ERF) family genes and potassium transporter family genes for RCA formation were the potential candidate genes involved under waterlogging conditions. Several genotypes, which performed consistently well under different conditions, can be used in breeding programs to develop waterlogging-tolerant varieties.