Genome evolution in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis

Adam M. Session, Yoshinobu Uno, Taejoon Kwon, Jarrod A. Chapman, Atsushi Toyoda, Shuji Takahashi, Akimasa Fukui, Akira Hikosaka, Atsushi Suzuki, Mariko Kondo, Simon J. Van Heeringen, Ian Quigley, Sven Heinz, Hajime Ogino, Haruki Ochi, Uffe Hellsten, Jessica B. Lyons, Oleg Simakov, Nicholas Putnam, Jonathan StitesYoko Kuroki, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tatsuo Michiue, Minoru Watanabe, Ozren Bogdanovic, Ryan Lister, Georgios Georgiou, Sarita S. Paranjpe, Ila Van Kruijsbergen, Shengquiang Shu, Joseph Carlson, Tsutomu Kinoshita, Yuko Ohta, Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Jerry Jenkins, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz, Therese Mitros, Sahar V. Mozaffari, Yutaka Suzuki, Yoshikazu Haramoto, Takamasa S. Yamamoto, Chiyo Takagi, Rebecca Heald, Kelly Miller, Christian Haudenschild, Jacob Kitzman, Takuya Nakayama, Yumi Izutsu, Jacques Robert, Joshua Fortriede, Kevin Burns, Vaneet Lotay, Kamran Karimi, Yuuri Yasuoka, Darwin S. Dichmann, Martin F. Flajnik, Douglas W. Houston, Jay Shendure, Louis Dupasquier, Peter D. Vize, Aaron M. Zorn, Michihiko Ito, Edward M. Marcotte, John B. Wallingford, Yuzuru Ito, Makoto Asashima, Naoto Ueno, Yoichi Matsuda, Gert Jan C Veenstra, Asao Fujiyama, Richard M. Harland, Masanori Taira, Daniel S. Rokhsar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

652 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To explore the origins and consequences of tetraploidy in the African clawed frog, we sequenced the Xenopus laevis genome and compared it to the related diploid X. tropicalis genome. We characterize the allotetraploid origin of X. laevis by partitioning its genome into two homoeologous subgenomes, marked by distinct families of 'fossil' transposable elements. On the basis of the activity of these elements and the age of hundreds of unitary pseudogenes, we estimate that the two diploid progenitor species diverged around 34 million years ago (Ma) and combined to form an allotetraploid around 17-18 Ma. More than 56% of all genes were retained in two homoeologous copies. Protein function, gene expression, and the amount of conserved flanking sequence all correlate with retention rates. The subgenomes have evolved asymmetrically, with one chromosome set more often preserving the ancestral state and the other experiencing more gene loss, deletion, rearrangement, and reduced gene expression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-343
Number of pages8
JournalNature
Volume538
Issue number7625
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Oct 2016

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