We investigated heat tolerance at the reproductive stage in six spring-type B. rapa accessions and one B. juncea accession as a control. Plants were subjected to two temperature treatments for seven days in controlled environmental rooms, beginning one day before the first open flower on the main stem inflorescence. The high-temperature treatment ranged from 25 °C to 35 °C during 16 h light and 25 °C during 8 h dark. The control temperature treatment was set at 23 °C during 16 h light and 15 °C during 8 h dark. Soil moisture was maintained at close to field capacity to avoid drought stress. Main stem buds that emerged during the treatment period were tagged, and pod and seed production was recorded at each reproductive node. Leaf temperature depression and leaf conductance increased in the high-temperature treatment which indicated that plants were not drought stressed. A leafy vegetable type of B. rapa from Indonesia was the most tolerant to high temperature, as defined by its ability to set seed equally well in the control and high-temperature treatments, followed by an oilseed type from Pakistan. Pollen viability remained above 87 % in all accessions and treatments. We conclude that bud number and length, and pod number produced under high temperatures, might provide a useful preliminary screen for high-temperature tolerance and that B. rapa may be a valuable source of heat tolerance in canola (B. napus). © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.