Longitudinal studies in Sudan show ethnic differences in incidence and clinical phenotypes associated with Leishmania donovani. Immunologically, bias in type 1 vs type 2 cytokine responses is important To determine whether polymorphisms at IL4/IL9 or IFNGR1 contribute to susceptibility, we examined 59 multicase families of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with/without post Kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Multipoint nonparametric analysis (Allegro) linked IL4/IL9 to VL per se (P= 0.002). Transmission disequilibrium testing with robust variance estimates confirmed association in the presence of linkage between VL per se and IL4 (P= 0.008) but not IL9. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed both IL4RP2 and IL4RP1 markers contributed significantly to the association, suggesting a common disease-associated haplotype. In contrast, IFNGR1 was linked (P= 0.031) and associated (P= 0.007) to PKDL but not VL or VL per se. Hence, polymorphism in a type 2 cytokine gene influences underlying susceptibility to VL, whereas IFNGR1 is specifically related to susceptibility to PKDL.