Genetic factors, adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviors, and risk of bladder cancer

Qiangsheng He, Siqing Wu, Ying Zhou, Yuchen Liu, Bin Xia, Wenjing Li, Jinyu Zhao, Ningning Mi, Peng Xie, Xiwen Qin, Jinqiu Yuan, Yihang Pan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Genetic and lifestyle factors both contribute to the pathogenesis of bladder cancer, but the extent to which the increased genetic risk can be mitigated by adhering to a healthy lifestyle remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of combined lifestyle factors with bladder cancer risk within genetic risk groups. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 375 998 unrelated participants of European ancestry with genotype and lifestyle data and free of cancer from the UK biobank. We generated a polygenic risk score (PRS) using 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms and a healthy lifestyle score based on body weight, smoking status, physical activity, and diet. Cox models were fitted to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of genetic and lifestyle factors on bladder cancer. Results: During a median follow-up of 11.8 years, 880 participants developed bladder cancer. Compared with those with low PRS, participants with intermediate and high PRS had a higher risk of bladder cancer (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07–1.56; HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.32–2.02, respectively). An optimal lifestyle was associated with an approximately 50% lower risk of bladder cancer than a poor lifestyle across all genetic strata. Participants with a high genetic risk and a poor lifestyle had 3.6-fold elevated risk of bladder cancer compared with those with a low genetic risk and an optimal lifestyle (HR 3.63, 95% CI 2.23 –5.91). Conclusions: Adhering to a healthy lifestyle could substantially reduce the bladder cancer risk across all genetic strata, even for high-genetic risk individuals. For all populations, adopting an intermediate lifestyle is more beneficial than a poor one, and adhering to an optimal lifestyle is the ideal effective strategy for bladder cancer prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number965
Number of pages11
JournalBMC Cancer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


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