The objectives of this study were to investigate genetic variation and relationships between Indonesia-, Australian- and European-based cultivars and to evaluate variation within Indonesia cultivars as all cultivars are open-pollinated. Eight cauliflower cultivars collected from three production regions in Indonesia and four F, hybrids cultivars grown in Australia were evaluated using RAPD and ISSR markers. DNA polymorphisms generated from 10 polymorphic RAPD primers were used to construct a dendogram using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and to generate a fingerprinting key. ISSR marker analysis using 14 primers were attempted but DNA polymorphisms could not be clearly identified. The RAPD technique indicated that variation occurred both within and between Indonesian cultivars. Comparison between Indonesian-, Australian- and European-based cultivars showed that Indonesian cultivars have unique genotypes and would be good sources of genes for future crop improvement. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.