Genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of hypospadias

M. George, F.J. Schneuer, Sarra Jamieson, A.J.A. Holland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. This article reviews the current evidence and knowledge of the aetiology of hypospadias. Hypospadias remains a fascinating anomaly of the male phallus. It may be an isolated occurrence or part of a syndrome or field defect. The increasing use of assisted reproductive techniques and hormonal manipulation during pregnancy may have been associated with an apparent rise in the incidence of hypospadias. Genetic studies and gene analysis have suggested some defects that could result in hypospadias. New light has also been thrown on environmental factors that could modulate candidate genes, causing altered development of the male external genitalia.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)519-527
JournalPediatric Surgery International
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2015


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