From start to start: the development of robust methods for pharmacy practice research

Carolyn Glazier, Kerry Mullan, Amanda Bryce, William Caddy, Sandra Salter, Liza Seubert, Rhonda Clifford

Research output: Contribution to journalAbstract/Meeting Abstractpeer-review


Objectives: To document reproducible planning techniques and robust scientific methodologies for community pharmacy-practice research by (1) trialling the critical path method (CPM) to plan research activities and (2) assessing the feasibility and efficiency of two verifiable data collection methods (audio-recordings and a questionnaire).
Methods: (1) A simple, notepaper-based planning tool (CPM) was used to identify every constituent of the research, arrange the activities in the most optimal order and to identify steps where documentation was required. (2) Pharmacy staff were equipped with audio recorders to capture conversations with customers. These recordings were assessed for clarity, number of consultations per hour and the purpose of the consultation. Concurrently, demographic data for customers who were approached to complete a previously-developed pharmacy-use questionnaire were recorded. Efficiency was determined using the number of audio-recorded consultations per hour and as a proportion of customers who agreed to participate in the questionnaire.
Results: (1) The use of the CPM successfully identified the order of events and documentation required. (2) Audio recordings were all high clarity, with varying consultation frequencies per hour between staff dependent upon their designated role (maximum 5.9/h) and 38% being non-prescription consultations. A total of 46 of 144 customers (32%) approached to complete the questionnaire did so, with uniform frequencies of participation between genders and ages.
Conclusions: (1) CPM is a simple and effective planning technique for pharmacy practice research. (2) Audio-recordings and questionnaires are individually and collectively feasible for customer-based research in community pharmacies. Participation in a questionnaire did not differ with age or gender.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42
JournalThe International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Issue numberS2
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016


Dive into the research topics of 'From start to start: the development of robust methods for pharmacy practice research'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this