In 2003, a random survey was conducted across the Western Australian wheatbelt to establish the extent and frequency of herbicide resistance in Raphanus raphanistrum populations infesting crop fields. Five hundred cropping fields were visited, with 90 R. raphanistrum populations collected, representative of populations present in crop fields throughout the Western Australian wheatbelt. Collected populations were screened with four herbicides of various modes of action that are commonly used for the control of this weed. The majority of Western Australian R. raphanistrum populations were found to contain plants resistant to the acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide chlorsulfuron (54%) and auxin analogue herbicide, 2,4-D amine (60%). This survey also determined that over half (58%) of these populations were multiple resistant across at least two of the four herbicide modes of action used in the screening. Only 17% of R. raphanistrum populations have retained their initial status of susceptibility to all four herbicides. The distribution patterns of the herbicide-resistant populations identified that there were higher frequencies of resistant and developing resistance populations occurring in the intensively cropped northern regions of the wheatbelt. These results clearly indicate that the reliance on herbicidal weed control in cropping systems based on reduced tillage and stubble retention will lead to higher frequencies of herbicide-resistant weed populations. Therefore, within intensive crop production systems, there is a need to diversify weed management strategies and not rely entirely on too few herbicide control options.