Forestal Arauco (FA), a global manufacturer of forest products, manages more than 1 million ha of forest plantations and oversees the conservation of more than half a million hectares of native forest and vegetation in Brazil, Argentina and Chile. In 2008, FA responded to local concerns about the effect of plantations on water resources and commenced streamflow monitoring in catchments in the coastal range of central-southern Chile between 35° and 39° of latitude south. This data note presents an overview of daily streamflow and rainfall records for 10 small catchments (18–112 ha) from 2008 to 2018. The catchments are covered by three different forest types, namely native forest (2), pine plantations of different ages (6) and eucalypt plantations (2). All of these catchments share similar metamorphic geology. A 90° V notch weir was built at each catchment outlet and data collected at 5 min interval using a pressure transducer that was calibrated monthly. The dataset is part of a research programme aiming to improve our understanding about the role of forest plantations on water balance at a stand and catchment level. It also includes the rainfall data from these catchments estimated using a combination of local rain gauges and data from the longer term records of the Chilean Directorate of Water. This dataset can be used in hydrological modelling and in a wide range of research questions and water management issues regarding forest plantations in a Mediterranean climate.