Force-Time Characteristics of the Butterfly Turns by Age-Group Swimmers

B.H. Ling, Brian Blanksby, Bruce Elliott, G.K. Mcelroy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Turning time can account for more than 20% of a swimming race and better turns can improve performance significantly. Two underwater video cameras and a force platform were used to analyse the turning techniques of 16 female and 12 male, age-group, butterfly swimmers of similar swimming experience. Subjects were of mean age 13.3 +/- 1.6 years; height, 166.4 +/- 11.2cm and mass, 55.1 +/- 11.5kg. Two x 50m maximal effort butterfly swims were completed from a push-start on a 3 minute departure interval in a 25m pool. The criterion measure was the time elapsed between passing the 5m mark on the approach and departure from the wall, named the 5m Round Trip Time (RTT). A one-way ANOVA revealed no gender differences. The 5m RTT correlated significantly (p
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)429-451
JournalJournal of Human Movement Studies
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2004


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