Fluoride release, recharge and mechanical property stability of various fluoride-containing resin composites

S Naoum, A Ellakwa, F Martin, M Swain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

AIM: To determine the fluoride release and recharge of three fluoride-containing resin composites when aged in deionized water (pH 6.5) and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and to assess mechanical properties of these composites following aging.

METHODS: Three fluoride-containing resin composites were analyzed in this study; a new giomer material named Beautifil II, Gradia Direct X, and Tetric EvoCeram. A glass ionomer cement, Fuji IX Extra, was also analyzed for comparison. Specimens were fabricated for two test groups: group 1 included 10 disc specimens initially aged 43 days in deionized water (five specimens) and lactic acid (five specimens). The fluoride release from these specimens was measured using a fluoride-specific electrode on nine specific test days during the aging period. Following 49 days of aging, each specimen was recharged in 5000 ppm neutral sodium fluoride solution for 5 minutes. Specimen recharge was then repeated on a weekly basis for 3 weeks. The subsequent fluoride rerelease was measured at 1, 3, and 7 days after each recharge episode. Group 2 included six disc specimens aged for 3 months in deionized water (three specimens) and lactic acid (three specimens). The hardness and elastic modulus of each specimen was measured using nano-indentation at intervals of 24 hours, 1 month, and 3 months after fabrication. Two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc (Tukey) testing was used to assess the influence of storage media (two levels) and composite type (three levels) on the fluoride release, fluoride rerelease, hardness, and elastic modulus of the assessed materials. The level of significance was set at p=0.05.

RESULTS: All three composites demonstrated fluoride release and recharge when aged in both deionized water and lactic acid. The cumulative fluoride released from Beautifil II into both media was substantially greater than the fluoride released from Gradia Direct X and Tetric EvoCeram after 43 days aging and was significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA, Tukey test) greater during several analysis periods. Beautifil II demonstrated the greatest recharge ability of the three composites over the 3-week recharge period in both media. Fuji IX Extra demonstrated a significantly (p<0.05) greater fluoride release and recharge compared with the three resin composites. The elastic modulus and hardness of the three composites did not decrease significantly (p<0.05) with fluoride release or fluid uptake over the 3-month aging period, in either media.

CONCLUSION: The three composites in the present study demonstrated fluoride release (Beautiful II > Gradia Direct X > Tetric EvoCeram) and fluoride recharge (Beautiful II > Gradia Direct X > Tetric EvoCeram). This capability raises the possibility of fluoride-containing composites exhibiting a lower incidence of recurrent caries than non fluoride–containing composites. The mechanical properties of each composite did not diminish with aging and fluoride release over the testing period.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)422-32
Number of pages11
JournalOperative Dentistry
Volume36
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Composite Resins
Fluorides
Lactic Acid
Water
Elastic Modulus
Hardness
Glass Ionomer Cements
Sodium Fluoride
Analysis of Variance
Electrodes

Cite this

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title = "Fluoride release, recharge and mechanical property stability of various fluoride-containing resin composites",
abstract = "AIM: To determine the fluoride release and recharge of three fluoride-containing resin composites when aged in deionized water (pH 6.5) and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and to assess mechanical properties of these composites following aging.METHODS: Three fluoride-containing resin composites were analyzed in this study; a new giomer material named Beautifil II, Gradia Direct X, and Tetric EvoCeram. A glass ionomer cement, Fuji IX Extra, was also analyzed for comparison. Specimens were fabricated for two test groups: group 1 included 10 disc specimens initially aged 43 days in deionized water (five specimens) and lactic acid (five specimens). The fluoride release from these specimens was measured using a fluoride-specific electrode on nine specific test days during the aging period. Following 49 days of aging, each specimen was recharged in 5000 ppm neutral sodium fluoride solution for 5 minutes. Specimen recharge was then repeated on a weekly basis for 3 weeks. The subsequent fluoride rerelease was measured at 1, 3, and 7 days after each recharge episode. Group 2 included six disc specimens aged for 3 months in deionized water (three specimens) and lactic acid (three specimens). The hardness and elastic modulus of each specimen was measured using nano-indentation at intervals of 24 hours, 1 month, and 3 months after fabrication. Two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc (Tukey) testing was used to assess the influence of storage media (two levels) and composite type (three levels) on the fluoride release, fluoride rerelease, hardness, and elastic modulus of the assessed materials. The level of significance was set at p=0.05.RESULTS: All three composites demonstrated fluoride release and recharge when aged in both deionized water and lactic acid. The cumulative fluoride released from Beautifil II into both media was substantially greater than the fluoride released from Gradia Direct X and Tetric EvoCeram after 43 days aging and was significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA, Tukey test) greater during several analysis periods. Beautifil II demonstrated the greatest recharge ability of the three composites over the 3-week recharge period in both media. Fuji IX Extra demonstrated a significantly (p<0.05) greater fluoride release and recharge compared with the three resin composites. The elastic modulus and hardness of the three composites did not decrease significantly (p<0.05) with fluoride release or fluid uptake over the 3-month aging period, in either media.CONCLUSION: The three composites in the present study demonstrated fluoride release (Beautiful II > Gradia Direct X > Tetric EvoCeram) and fluoride recharge (Beautiful II > Gradia Direct X > Tetric EvoCeram). This capability raises the possibility of fluoride-containing composites exhibiting a lower incidence of recurrent caries than non fluoride–containing composites. The mechanical properties of each composite did not diminish with aging and fluoride release over the testing period.",
keywords = "Cariostatic Agents/analysis, Composite Resins/chemistry, Dental Caries/prevention & control, Dental Stress Analysis, Elastic Modulus, Fluorides/analysis, Hardness, Ion-Selective Electrodes, Materials Testing",
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Fluoride release, recharge and mechanical property stability of various fluoride-containing resin composites. / Naoum, S; Ellakwa, A; Martin, F; Swain, M.

In: Operative Dentistry, Vol. 36, No. 4, 09.08.2011, p. 422-32.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fluoride release, recharge and mechanical property stability of various fluoride-containing resin composites

AU - Naoum, S

AU - Ellakwa, A

AU - Martin, F

AU - Swain, M

PY - 2011/8/9

Y1 - 2011/8/9

N2 - AIM: To determine the fluoride release and recharge of three fluoride-containing resin composites when aged in deionized water (pH 6.5) and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and to assess mechanical properties of these composites following aging.METHODS: Three fluoride-containing resin composites were analyzed in this study; a new giomer material named Beautifil II, Gradia Direct X, and Tetric EvoCeram. A glass ionomer cement, Fuji IX Extra, was also analyzed for comparison. Specimens were fabricated for two test groups: group 1 included 10 disc specimens initially aged 43 days in deionized water (five specimens) and lactic acid (five specimens). The fluoride release from these specimens was measured using a fluoride-specific electrode on nine specific test days during the aging period. Following 49 days of aging, each specimen was recharged in 5000 ppm neutral sodium fluoride solution for 5 minutes. Specimen recharge was then repeated on a weekly basis for 3 weeks. The subsequent fluoride rerelease was measured at 1, 3, and 7 days after each recharge episode. Group 2 included six disc specimens aged for 3 months in deionized water (three specimens) and lactic acid (three specimens). The hardness and elastic modulus of each specimen was measured using nano-indentation at intervals of 24 hours, 1 month, and 3 months after fabrication. Two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc (Tukey) testing was used to assess the influence of storage media (two levels) and composite type (three levels) on the fluoride release, fluoride rerelease, hardness, and elastic modulus of the assessed materials. The level of significance was set at p=0.05.RESULTS: All three composites demonstrated fluoride release and recharge when aged in both deionized water and lactic acid. The cumulative fluoride released from Beautifil II into both media was substantially greater than the fluoride released from Gradia Direct X and Tetric EvoCeram after 43 days aging and was significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA, Tukey test) greater during several analysis periods. Beautifil II demonstrated the greatest recharge ability of the three composites over the 3-week recharge period in both media. Fuji IX Extra demonstrated a significantly (p<0.05) greater fluoride release and recharge compared with the three resin composites. The elastic modulus and hardness of the three composites did not decrease significantly (p<0.05) with fluoride release or fluid uptake over the 3-month aging period, in either media.CONCLUSION: The three composites in the present study demonstrated fluoride release (Beautiful II > Gradia Direct X > Tetric EvoCeram) and fluoride recharge (Beautiful II > Gradia Direct X > Tetric EvoCeram). This capability raises the possibility of fluoride-containing composites exhibiting a lower incidence of recurrent caries than non fluoride–containing composites. The mechanical properties of each composite did not diminish with aging and fluoride release over the testing period.

AB - AIM: To determine the fluoride release and recharge of three fluoride-containing resin composites when aged in deionized water (pH 6.5) and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and to assess mechanical properties of these composites following aging.METHODS: Three fluoride-containing resin composites were analyzed in this study; a new giomer material named Beautifil II, Gradia Direct X, and Tetric EvoCeram. A glass ionomer cement, Fuji IX Extra, was also analyzed for comparison. Specimens were fabricated for two test groups: group 1 included 10 disc specimens initially aged 43 days in deionized water (five specimens) and lactic acid (five specimens). The fluoride release from these specimens was measured using a fluoride-specific electrode on nine specific test days during the aging period. Following 49 days of aging, each specimen was recharged in 5000 ppm neutral sodium fluoride solution for 5 minutes. Specimen recharge was then repeated on a weekly basis for 3 weeks. The subsequent fluoride rerelease was measured at 1, 3, and 7 days after each recharge episode. Group 2 included six disc specimens aged for 3 months in deionized water (three specimens) and lactic acid (three specimens). The hardness and elastic modulus of each specimen was measured using nano-indentation at intervals of 24 hours, 1 month, and 3 months after fabrication. Two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc (Tukey) testing was used to assess the influence of storage media (two levels) and composite type (three levels) on the fluoride release, fluoride rerelease, hardness, and elastic modulus of the assessed materials. The level of significance was set at p=0.05.RESULTS: All three composites demonstrated fluoride release and recharge when aged in both deionized water and lactic acid. The cumulative fluoride released from Beautifil II into both media was substantially greater than the fluoride released from Gradia Direct X and Tetric EvoCeram after 43 days aging and was significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA, Tukey test) greater during several analysis periods. Beautifil II demonstrated the greatest recharge ability of the three composites over the 3-week recharge period in both media. Fuji IX Extra demonstrated a significantly (p<0.05) greater fluoride release and recharge compared with the three resin composites. The elastic modulus and hardness of the three composites did not decrease significantly (p<0.05) with fluoride release or fluid uptake over the 3-month aging period, in either media.CONCLUSION: The three composites in the present study demonstrated fluoride release (Beautiful II > Gradia Direct X > Tetric EvoCeram) and fluoride recharge (Beautiful II > Gradia Direct X > Tetric EvoCeram). This capability raises the possibility of fluoride-containing composites exhibiting a lower incidence of recurrent caries than non fluoride–containing composites. The mechanical properties of each composite did not diminish with aging and fluoride release over the testing period.

KW - Cariostatic Agents/analysis

KW - Composite Resins/chemistry

KW - Dental Caries/prevention & control

KW - Dental Stress Analysis

KW - Elastic Modulus

KW - Fluorides/analysis

KW - Hardness

KW - Ion-Selective Electrodes

KW - Materials Testing

U2 - 10.2341/10-414-L

DO - 10.2341/10-414-L

M3 - Article

VL - 36

SP - 422

EP - 432

JO - Operative Dentistry

JF - Operative Dentistry

SN - 0361-7734

IS - 4

ER -