Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar

H.I. Almulla, Nigel King, H.M. Alnsour, A.K. Sajnani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p <0.0001). Moreover, bottled water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p <0.05). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)471-476
JournalBiological Trace Element Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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