Purpose: The management of recurrent nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) post-transurethral resection has been based around electrocautery techniques, either under local or general anesthetic. We determine the long-term outcome of the management of NMIBC recurrences treated with Holmium:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Ho:YAG) laser ablation under local anesthetic with a flexible cystoscope. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective analysis of 151 consecutive patients, undergoing treatment of 444 tumors, between 2006 and 2011 in a University Teaching Hospital. Median follow-up was 24 months (0-58 months). The primary outcome was local, on-site recurrence rates of NMIBC. The secondary outcome measure included off-site recurrence rates, complications, pain perception, and patient satisfaction. Results: Local, on-site recurrence rates after first treatment for all NMIBC disease were 10%. In patients with low risk NMIBC (G1/2, Ta), this reduced to around 4% post laser treatment. Higher recurrence rates (14%) were seen in those with high-grade (G3, T1) disease. Treatment was more successful with disease around the trigone, posterior and lateral bladder walls, with a significantly higher risk of recurrence for tumor around the ureteric orifice. The median time to local recurrence was 12 months and off-site recurrence was 25 months. Complication rates were low: dysuria (4.2%), frequency (1.5%), and hematuria (1.9%), with no episodes of bladder perforation. Visual analog pain scores were low, mean score 1 (range 0-7). The overall patient satisfaction was 100%. Conclusions: Flexible cystoscopy and Ho:YAG laser therapy should be considered as a first line treatment option for the management of recurrence in low-grade NMIBC (G1/2, Ta/1) throughout the bladder, except around the ureteric orifices. For those with high-grade disease (G3), the recurrences rates are increased, but the procedure still offers an acceptable recurrence rate. It provides good local disease control, low complications, patient acceptability and tolerance. © 2013 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Syed, H. A., Talbot, N., Abbas, A., Macdonald, D., Jones, R. J., Marr, T., & Rukin, N. J. (2013). Flexible cystoscopy and holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser ablation for recurrent nonmuscle invasive bladder carcinoma under local anesthesia. Journal of Endourology, 27(7), 886-891. https://doi.org/10.1089/end.2012.0696