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Abstract
In this chapter, we advocate application of explicit dynamics (i.e. with explicit time stepping) finite element analysis as the finite element procedure of choice for computational biomechanics of the brain. Our recommendations regarding specific formulations, algorithms, and computing hardware for such analysis include: (1) application of total Lagrangian formulation of continuum mechanics (where the derivatives with respect to the spatial coordinates can be precomputed); (2) dynamic relaxation for problems (such as image registration) that require steadystate solution; (3) low order (underintegrated eightnoded hexahedra with hourglass control and fournoded tetrahedra with averaged nodal pressure to alleviate volumetric locking) for construction of finite element meshes of the brain; (4) implementation of the finite element algorithms on graphics processing units (GPUs) to facilitate realtime computation (through parallel processing/multithreading) on commodity hardware. We provide examples of verification of the discussed finite element algorithms against the reference solutions obtained using the wellestablished nonlinear static finite element procedures. We discuss timeconsuming generation of patientspecific finite element meshes and deterioration of the solution accuracy when the elements undergo distortion induced by large deformations as the limitations of finite element method in the context of surgical simulation.
Original language  English 

Title of host publication  Biomechanics of the Brain 
Editors  Karol Miller 
Place of Publication  Cham, Switzerland 
Publisher  Springer Nature Switzerland AG 
Pages  243272 
Edition  2 
ISBN (Electronic)  9783030049966 
ISBN (Print)  9783030049959 
DOIs  
Publication status  Published  9 Aug 2019 
Publication series
Name  Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering 

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Dive into the research topics of 'Finite Element Algorithms for Computational Biomechanics of the Brain'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.Projects
 7 Finished

Resectioninduced brain shift estimation: biomechanicsbased approach
Miller, K., Knuckey, N., Nabavi, A., Joldes, G., Wittek, A. & Kikinis, R.
National Health & Medical Research Council NHMRC
1/01/18 → 31/12/21
Project: Research

Biomechanics Meets Robotics: Methods for Accurate and Fast Needle Targeting
Wittek, A., Singh, S., Miller, K., Hannaford, B. & Fichtinger, G.
1/01/16 → 31/03/22
Project: Research

Towards Predicting Brain Deformations for Image Guided Neurosurgery
Miller, K., Warfield, S., Wittek, A. & Knuckey, N.
National Health & Medical Research Council NHMRC
1/01/11 → 31/12/13
Project: Research