Family welfare expenditure, contraceptive use, sources and method‐mix in india

Sheuli Misra, Srinivas Goli, Md Juel Rana, Abhishek Gautam, Nitin Datta, Priya Nanda, Ravi Verma

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2 Citations (Web of Science)


Making universal access to sexual and reproductive health care a reality, and thus building momentum for comprehensive family planning by 2030, is key for achieving sustainable development goals. However, in the last decade, India has been retreating from progress achieved in access to family planning. Family planning progress for a large country such as India is critical for achieving sustainable developmental goals. Against this backdrop, the paper investigated the question of how far family welfare expenditure affects contraceptive use, sources of contraceptive methods, and method‐mix using triangulation of micro and macro data analyses. Our findings suggest that, except for female sterilizations, modern methods of contraception do not show a positive relationship with family welfare expenditure. Notwithstanding a rise in overall family welfare expenditure, spending on core family planning programs stagnates. State‐wise and socio‐economic heterogeneity in source‐mix and method‐mix continued to influence contraceptive access in India. Method‐mix continued to skew towards female sterilization. Public sector access is helpful only for promoting female sterilization. Thus, the source‐mix for modern contraceptives presents a clear public‐private divide. Over time, access to all contraceptive methods by public sources declined while the private sector has failed to fill the gap. In conclusion, this study identified a need for revitalizing family planning programs to promote spacing methods in relatively lower‐performing states and socio‐economic groups to increase overall contraceptive access and use in India through the rise in core family planning expenditure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9562
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2021


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