Data from the Australian Twins Survey are analysed in order to compare the relative importance of the role of family background as a mediating influence on the relationship between schooling and income for males and females. The analysis reveals that family background is a considerably greater influence on males than on females. This finding is consistent with a greater screening role for education in the case of females and with a process of intergenerational transmission of inequality for males but not for females.
Miller, P., Mulvey, C., & Martin, N. (1997). Family Characteristics and the Returns to Schooling: Evidence on Gender Differences from a Sample of Australian Twins. Economica, 64, 119-136. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0335.00067