Eye Movements of Drivers with Glaucoma on a Visual Recognition Slide Test

Samantha Sze Yee Lee, Alex A. Black, Joanne M. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

SIGNIFICANCE Glaucoma has been shown to impair hazard detection ability and increase crash risk compared to controls. Differences in visual search behavior of the driving scene may explain these differences; however, there has been limited investigation of this issue with inconsistent findings. PURPOSE Through eye movement tracking of older drivers with glaucoma, we explored their visual search behavior in comparison with controls while performing the DriveSafe, a slide recognition test purported to predict fitness to drive. METHODS Thirty-one drivers with glaucoma (mean age, 71.7 ± 6.3 years; average better-eye mean defect,-3 dB; average worse-eye mean defect,-12 dB) and 25 age-matched controls underwent measurements of their visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, and useful field of view (visual processing speeds). Participants' eye movements were recorded while they completed the DriveSafe test, which consists of brief presentations of static, real-world driving scenes containing various road users (pedestrians, bicycles, vehicles). Participants reported the types, positions, and direction of travel of road users in each image; the score was the total number of correctly reported items (maximum, 128). RESULTS Drivers with glaucoma had significantly worse DriveSafe scores (P =.03), fixated on road users for shorter durations (P <.001), and exhibited smaller saccades (P =.02) compared with controls. For all participants, longer fixation times on road users (P <.001) was the eye movement measure most strongly associated with better DriveSafe scores; this relationship was not significantly different between groups. Useful field-of-view divided attention was the strongest visual predictor of DriveSafe scores. CONCLUSIONS Eye movement changes in the glaucoma group may reflect increased difficulty in identifying relevant objects in the visual scene, which may be related to their lower DriveSafe scores. Given the DriveSafe's potential utility in assessing drivers with visual impairment before on-road testing, further investigations on how DriveSafe performance and eye movement patterns compare to those during on-road driving are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)484-491
Number of pages8
JournalOptometry and Vision Science
Volume96
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019

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Eye Movements
Glaucoma
Visual Fields
Contrast Sensitivity
Aptitude
Saccades
Vision Disorders
Visual Acuity
Recognition (Psychology)

Cite this

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title = "Eye Movements of Drivers with Glaucoma on a Visual Recognition Slide Test",
abstract = "SIGNIFICANCE Glaucoma has been shown to impair hazard detection ability and increase crash risk compared to controls. Differences in visual search behavior of the driving scene may explain these differences; however, there has been limited investigation of this issue with inconsistent findings. PURPOSE Through eye movement tracking of older drivers with glaucoma, we explored their visual search behavior in comparison with controls while performing the DriveSafe, a slide recognition test purported to predict fitness to drive. METHODS Thirty-one drivers with glaucoma (mean age, 71.7 ± 6.3 years; average better-eye mean defect,-3 dB; average worse-eye mean defect,-12 dB) and 25 age-matched controls underwent measurements of their visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, and useful field of view (visual processing speeds). Participants' eye movements were recorded while they completed the DriveSafe test, which consists of brief presentations of static, real-world driving scenes containing various road users (pedestrians, bicycles, vehicles). Participants reported the types, positions, and direction of travel of road users in each image; the score was the total number of correctly reported items (maximum, 128). RESULTS Drivers with glaucoma had significantly worse DriveSafe scores (P =.03), fixated on road users for shorter durations (P <.001), and exhibited smaller saccades (P =.02) compared with controls. For all participants, longer fixation times on road users (P <.001) was the eye movement measure most strongly associated with better DriveSafe scores; this relationship was not significantly different between groups. Useful field-of-view divided attention was the strongest visual predictor of DriveSafe scores. CONCLUSIONS Eye movement changes in the glaucoma group may reflect increased difficulty in identifying relevant objects in the visual scene, which may be related to their lower DriveSafe scores. Given the DriveSafe's potential utility in assessing drivers with visual impairment before on-road testing, further investigations on how DriveSafe performance and eye movement patterns compare to those during on-road driving are warranted.",
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Eye Movements of Drivers with Glaucoma on a Visual Recognition Slide Test. / Lee, Samantha Sze Yee; Black, Alex A.; Wood, Joanne M.

In: Optometry and Vision Science, Vol. 96, No. 7, 01.07.2019, p. 484-491.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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