Tissue kallikrein (hK1) and plasma kallikrein (PK, hKB1) are serine proteases that produce biologically active kinin peptides from endogenous kininogen substrates. There is evidence linking the kallikreins and the mitogenic kinin peptides to carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of tissue prokallikrein (pro-hK1), plasma prekallikrein (PPK, pre-hKB1) and kinin B-1 and B-2 receptor proteins in different subtypes of lung cancer. Immunohistochemistry, using specific antibodies, was performed on archived normal lung sections and sections from adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, large cell carcinomas, small cell carcinomas and carcinoid tumours of the lung. Immunoperoxidase labelling was visualised by brightfield microscopy and immunofluorescence labelling by confocal microscopy. Extensive cytoplasmic expression of pro-hK1 and PPK was observed, which was similar in small cell and non-small cell tumours. However, nuclear labelling for the kallikreins was absent or limited. The kinin B-1 and B-2 receptors were highly expressed in the cytoplasm of all tumour types and in the nuclei of non-small cell tumours. Further studies are required to assess the functional significance of the expression of hK1, PK and kinin receptors in lung tumours, and whether any of these proteins may be potential biomarkers for specific subtypes of lung carcinoma.