Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a major disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus), worldwide, including Australia and France. The aims of these studies were first, to determine if higher levels of resistance to L. maculans could be generated in double haploid (DH) lines derived from spring-type B. napus cv. Grouse, which has a good level of field resistance to blackleg; and second, to determine whether the resistance to blackleg disease of individual DH lines responds differentially to different L. maculans field populations within and between the two countries. DH lines were extracted from cv. Grouse and tested in field experiments carried out in both France and Australia against natural L. maculans populations. Extracting and screening DH lines were an effective means to select individual lines with greatly improved expression of resistance to blackleg crown canker disease in comparison with the original parental population. However, relative disease resistance rankings for DH lines were not always consistent between sites. The higher level of resistance in France was shown to be because of a high expression level of quantitative resistance in the French growing conditions. Big differences were observed for some DH lines between the 2004 and the 2005 field sites in Australia where the L. maculans populations differed by their virulence on single dominant gene-based resistant lines derived from Brassica rapa ssp. sylvestris. This differential behaviour could not be clearly explained by the specific resistance genes until now identified in these DH lines. This investigation highlights the potential to derive DH lines with superior levels of resistance to L. maculans compared with parental populations. However, in locations with particularly high pathogen diversity, such as in southern Australia, multiyear and multisite evaluations should be performed to screen for the most efficient material in different situations.