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Although repetition is generally assumed to enhance the accessibility of memory for rehearsed material, recent research has suggested that prolonged repetition might actually be detrimental under some conditions. In the present work, we manipulated repetition duration and learning condition (intentional vs. incidental) in an effort to clarify the relationship between repetition and memory. Replicating previous findings, memory for repeated items declined with increased repetition under incidental-learning conditions. However, increased repetition had the opposite effect under intentional-learning conditions. Taken together, these results provide evidence for distinctive mechanisms of memory acquisition during repetition that vary depending on learning context.