Exploration of Human Serum Lipoprotein Supramolecular Phospholipids Using Statistical Heterospectroscopy in n-Dimensions (SHY- n): Identification of Potential Cardiovascular Risk Biomarkers Related to SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Reika Masuda, Samantha Lodge, Luke Whiley, Nicola Gray, Nathan Lawler, Philipp Nitschke, Sze How Bong, Torben Kimhofer, Ruey Leng Loo, Berin Boughton, Annie X. Zeng, Drew Hall, Hartmut Schaefer, Manfred Spraul, Girish Dwivedi, Bu B. Yeap, Tammo Diercks, Ganeko Bernardo-Seisdedos, José M. Mato, John C. LindonElaine Holmes, Oscar Millet, Julien Wist, Jeremy K. Nicholson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a significant reduction in lipoprotein-bound serum phospholipids give rise to supramolecular phospholipid composite (SPC) signals observed in diffusion and relaxation edited 1H NMR spectra. To characterize the chemical structural components and compartmental location of SPC and to understand further its possible diagnostic properties, we applied a Statistical HeterospectroscopY in n-dimensions (SHY-n) approach. This involved statistically linking a series of orthogonal measurements made on the same samples, using independent analytical techniques and instruments, to identify the major individual phospholipid components giving rise to the SPC signals. Thus, an integrated model for SARS-CoV-2 positive and control adults is presented that relates three identified diagnostic subregions of the SPC signal envelope (SPC1, SPC2, and SPC3) generated using diffusion and relaxation edited (DIRE) NMR spectroscopy to lipoprotein and lipid measurements obtained by in vitro diagnostic NMR spectroscopy and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The SPC signals were then correlated sequentially with (a) total phospholipids in lipoprotein subfractions; (b) apolipoproteins B100, A1, and A2 in different lipoproteins and subcompartments; and (c) MS-measured total serum phosphatidylcholines present in the NMR detection range (i.e., PCs: 16.0,18.2; 18.0,18.1; 18.2,18.2; 16.0,18.1; 16.0,20.4; 18.0,18.2; 18.1,18.2), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs: 16.0 and 18.2), and sphingomyelin (SM 22.1). The SPC3/SPC2 ratio correlated strongly (r = 0.86) with the apolipoprotein B100/A1 ratio, a well-established marker of cardiovascular disease risk that is markedly elevated during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data indicate the considerable potential of using a serum SPC measurement as a metric of cardiovascular risk based on a single NMR experiment. This is of specific interest in relation to understanding the potential for increased cardiovascular risk in COVID-19 patients and risk persistence in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4426-4436
Number of pages11
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Volume94
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2022

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