Experimental Parity-Time Symmetric Quantum Walks for Centrality Ranking on Directed Graphs

Tong Wu, J. A. Izaac, Zi Xi Li, Kai Wang, Zhao Zhong Chen, Shining Zhu, J. B. Wang, Xiao Song Ma

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15 Citations (Scopus)
88 Downloads (Pure)


Using quantum walks (QWs) to rank the centrality of nodes in networks, represented by graphs, is advantageous compared to certain widely used classical algorithms. However, it is challenging to implement a directed graph via QW, since it corresponds to a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian and thus cannot be accomplished by conventional QW. Here we report the realizations of centrality rankings of a three-, a four-, and a nine-vertex directed graph with parity-time (PT) symmetric quantum walks by using high-dimensional photonic quantum states, multiple concatenated interferometers, and dimension dependent loss to achieve these. We demonstrate the advantage of the QW approach experimentally by breaking the vertex rank degeneracy in a four-vertex graph. Furthermore, we extend our experiment from single-photon to two-photon Fock states as inputs and realize the centrality ranking of a nine-vertex graph. Our work shows that a PT symmetric multiphoton quantum walk paves the way for realizing advanced algorithms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number240501
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 8 Dec 2020


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