Experimental investigation to elucidate the hydrate Anti-Agglomerating characteristics of 2-Butoxyethanol

Nasir Khan, Asheesh Kumar, Michael L. Johns, Eric F. May, Zachary M. Aman

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4 Citations (Scopus)


To alleviate the severity of hydrate formation in subsea oil and gas pipelines, the injection of anti-agglomerants (AAs) is one of the promising approaches. In this work, we investigate the hydrate anti-agglomerating characteristics of 2-butoxyethanol, also called butyl glycol ether (BGE), which has been reported in the literature as an effective synergist for kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), and a solvent for low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHIs). In view of its hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties, we evaluate the adsorption affinity of BGE for the oil–water interface employing the interfacial tensiometer (IFT) apparatus. Moreover, a micromechanical force (MMF) apparatus was used to probe the interfacial behavior of hydrate particles, wherein we measured the cohesive forces between cyclopentane hydrate particles in the presence of BGE at atmospheric pressure and 274.2 K. The kinetics of methane hydrate formation and resistance-to-flow were assessed while measuring the dynamic pressure–temperature data and motor torque signals alongside with visual observations, respectively, employing a high-pressure visual autoclave (HPVA). IFT results reveal the strong surface active properties of BGE with a substantial reduction in oil–water interfacial tension at ambient conditions. However, no considerable change in the cohesive forces between cyclopentane hydrate particles was observed through MMF measurements. In contrast, HPVA results reveal that the addition of BGE enhanced the kinetics of methane hydrate formation; however, the corresponding torque pattern/visual interpretations indicated an anti-agglomerating action of BGE. While synergistically combining the BGE with under-inhibited dosages of mono-ethylene glycol, we further demonstrated a significant improvement in the hydrate transportability, wherein this synergism led to a non-plugging scenario (flowable hydrate slurry). Our findings will offer new insights into the development of new anti-agglomerant chemistries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number144288
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023

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