The devastating impact that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has on the individual, society, and economy cannot be understated, especially since there are no clinically available neuroprotective treatments. Cationic arginine-rich peptides (CARPs) are a recently identified class of neuroprotective peptide showing great promise in pre-clinical models of stroke. This thesis examined the neuroprotective efficacy of CARPs in an animal model of TBI. Collectively, the studies demonstrated that a poly-arginine peptide (R18) could reduce functional and histological deficits, and the neuroinflammatory response following TBI. Thus, the findings warrant further investigation into CARPs as a neuroprotective therapeutic for TBI.