Aim: Hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients have a poor prognosis postdischarge. We determined whether renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) and β-blockers dispensed to patients within 60 days post-HF hospital discharge are associated with improved 1-year survival. Methods: A retrospective population-based study was conducted in 4897 seniors, aged 65-84 years, alive at 60 days postindex HF hospitalization in Western Australia over 2003-2008. Dispensing of RASI and β-blocker dispensing was identified from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme claims database linked to hospital admission and death records. Results: At 1-year posthospital discharge, the all-cause mortality and all-cause death or HF rehospitalization rate was 13.5% (n = 663) and 24.4% (n = 1193), respectively. Postdischarge RASI and β-blocker were dispensed in 77.4% and 53.0% of patients, respectively. Their use was associated with a lower inverse probability treatment weighted (IPTW) HR for 1-year mortality of 0.70, 95% CI 0.61-0.81 and 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92, respectively (both P < 0.0001), with a survival advantage most evident in the subgroup (70.1%) of patients with ischemic HF. In the overall cohort, these therapies were also associated with reduced IPTW HRs for all-cause death or HF rehospitalization (both P < 0.005) but not for HF rehospitalization exclusively. Use of a β-blocker was associated with a reduced IPTW HR for HF rehospitalization in the ischemic HF subgroup only. Conclusions: In a cohort of senior patients hospitalized with HF, dispensing of a RASI or β-blocker within 60 days postdischarge is associated with a 1-year survival benefit. Early postdischarge support programs after recent HF hospitalization should include measures to optimize adherence to evidence-based medications.