Evaluation of hydroxyapatite derived from flue gas desulphurization gypsum on simultaneous immobilization of lead and cadmium in contaminated soil

Yubo Yan, Qiao Li, Jianjun Yang, Shouyong Zhou, Lianjun Wang, Nanthi Bolan

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22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Flue gas desulphurization gypsum (FGD) is a major solid waste in coal-fired energy plants, and the appropriate reuse of this resources is still a major challenge. In this study, the feasibility of FGD as a calcium source to produce hydroxyapatite (FGD-HAP) for the immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in spiked soil was investigated. The effects of FGD and FGD-HAP on soil properties and redistribution, bioaccessibility and plant uptake of Pb and Cd were examined. Results showed that application of FGD and FGD-HAP could significantly improve the enzymes activities of contaminated soils, but the effectiveness was more pronounced with FGD-HAP. Addition of only 1% FGD-HAP could effectively reduce bioavailable Pb and Cd concentration in soil as measured by CaCl2 extraction by 60.6% and 65.4%, respectively. On the other hand, plant available Pb and Cd could significantly decrease by 93.8% and 73.2% after amendment of 5% FGD-HAP. Significant changes in the micro-scale distribution of heavy metals before and after FGD-HAP treatment demonstrated that while heavy metals were predominantly associated with iron/manganese oxides in untreated soil, high correlation between heavy metals and phosphorus/sulfur was observed in FGD-HAP treated soil. In addition, results of the leaching tests showed that incorporation of FGD-HAP enhanced the retention capacity of heavy metals in soil, indicating that application of FGD-HAP could diminish the environmental risk of leachable heavy metals to groundwater. Overall, this study highlighted the potential value of FGD-HAP as a low-cost and high-efficient amendment for remediation of Pb and Cd contaminated soils.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123038
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume400
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes

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