Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Versus Photodynamic Therapy Against Enterococcus faecalis-Infected Root Canals

Sheetal Maria Rajan, Barsha Shrestha, Sultan Aati, Omar Kujan, Alfred Tay, Amr S Fawzy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The high incidence of endodontic failure is associated with the remnants of Enterococcus faecalis present within the intricate anatomies of the root canal system (RCS), often inaccessible by the current endodontic practices. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on E. faecalis biofilms in artificially infected root canals for the potential application in current endodontic practices.

METHODS: Forty-five single-rooted extracted teeth were instrumented using hand files, sterilized in an autoclave, infected with E. faecalis and incubated for 4 wk. The specimens were treated and identified as follows: Control, 4% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); riboflavin (1 mg/mL); light only; HIFU (250 kHz, 20 W, 60s); PDT; riboflavin/HIFU; light/HIFU; and riboflavin/HIFU/light. Bactericidal efficacy was determined by colony-forming units (CFU), (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

RESULTS: Enterococcus faecalis biofilm exhibited significantly lower metabolic activity when treated with HIFU (250 kHz, 20 W, 60 s) compared with the control (4% NaOCl) and PDT groups. A similar phenomenon was observed with the CFU assay. HIFU remained the most effective treatment modality, with consistent results in CLSM and SEM.

CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the potential application of HIFU as an adjunct drug-free, non-destructive root canal disinfection method for endodontic treatment, suggesting an alternative to the current gold standard of 4% NaOCl and PDT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1875-1881
Number of pages7
JournalUltrasound in Medicine & Biology
Volume49
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

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