Objectives-To determine the distribution of a 231-base pair (bp) element in the dystrophin gene 3' untranslated region (UTR) in a colony of Golden Retrievers with muscular dystrophy and other unrelated dogs and to estimate the frequency of recombination for the canine dystrophin gene.Animals-77 dogs from the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) colony at the Murdoch Veterinary School and 30 unrelated dogs from the Murdoch University Veterinary Clinic.Procedure-Samples of blood or hair from dogs were used for amplification of DNA, using primers to the canine dystrophin 3' UTR.Results-The DNA from affected dogs generated a larger PCR product than that obtained from clinically normal dogs. Products were cloned and sequenced, and the difference in size was found to be attributable to a 231-bp short interspersed nuclectide element (SINE). The SINE was found in all affected dogs in the colony but not in most unaffected puppies in the colony. Eighteen of 19 dogs in the colony were heterozygous for the GRMD mutation, and 7 of 30 unrelated dogs also were heterozygous for the SINE.Conclusion and Clinical Relevance-Evidence of recombination between the GRMD mutation and the SINE was observed in only 4 dogs (2 sets of littermates) in the GRMD colony. Incidence of this SINE in a few unrelated dogs suggests that this particular insertion into the dystrophin gene may have been a recent event. The SINE in the dystrophin 3' UTR did not have an apparent influence on dystrophin mRNA concentrations.