Phytoestrogens can impact on reproductive health due to their structural similarity to estradiol. Initially identified in sheep consuming estrogenic pasture, phytoestrogens are known to influence reproductive capacity in numerous species. Estrogenic pastures continue to persist in sheep production systems, yet there has been little headway in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that link phytoestrogens with compromised reproduction in sheep. Here we review the known and postulated actions of phytoestrogens on reproduction, with particular focus on competitive binding with nuclear and non-nuclear estrogen receptors, modifications to the epigenome, and the downstream impacts on normal physiological function. The review examines the evidence that phytoestrogens cause reproductive dysfunction in both the sexes, and that outcomes depend on the developmental period when an individual is exposed to phytoestrogen.