Estimations of power system frequency, phasors and their applications for fault location on power transmission lines

Xiaojuan Li

    Research output: ThesisMaster's Thesis

    149 Downloads (Pure)


    The thesis is devoted to the development of new algorithms for estimation of system frequency, power system phasors and transmission line fault location in the context of power system protection and control. A z-transform signal model combined with a nonlinear post-filtering scheme to estimate the operating frequency in a power system is first developed in the thesis. The signal model parameters are identified by an optimisation method in which the error between the model output and the actual signal that represents a voltage or current in the power system is minimised. The form and the structure of the signal model do not require iterations in the optimisation process for parameter identification. The system operating frequency is directly evaluated from the model parameters. Effects of noise and any frequency components other than the operating or supply-frequency on the accuracy are countered very effectively by applying a median post-filtering on the time series representing the frequency estimates derived from the model. Extensive simulation studies and comparisons with previously-published frequency estimation techniques confirm the high performance of the method developed in the thesis in terms of accuracy and time delay. With respect to power system phasor estimation, a method is developed based on waveform interpolation in the discrete time-domain to counter the spectral leakage errors arising in forming, by discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the supply frequency phasors representing power system voltages and currents when there are system frequency deviations from the nominal value. The interpolation scheme allows DFT evaluation to be performed with a time window length which is exactly equal to the fundamental period of the voltage or current waveform. Comparative studies presented in the thesis confirm the improvements achieved by the method proposed over other previouslypublished techniques in terms of accuracy and computing time. With the availability of accurate operating frequency and phasor estimates, an optimal fault location method based on multi-conductor distributedparameter line model is developed. The method is a general one which is applicable to any transmission line configurations, including multi-terminal lines. The fault location method is based on the minimisation of an objective function in which the fault distance is a variable. The objective function is formed from combining the phase-variable distributed-parameter equations of individual line sections from the fault point to the line terminals. The multivariable minimisation leads to high accuracy and robustness of the fault location algorithm in which any voltage/current measurement errors, including sampling time synchronisation errors, are represented in the estimation procedure as variables in addition to the fault distance. Extensive simulation studies are performed to verify that the method developed is highly accurate and robust. The thesis is supported by two international publications of which the candidate is a joint author.
    Original languageEnglish
    Publication statusUnpublished - 2007


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