Epigenetic mechanisms in food allergy

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperChapter

Abstract

Community rates of food allergy have been rising over the last 25 years at a rate too rapid to be explained by changes in genetics. Environmental changes brought about by urban development and industrialization have been linked to rising rates of food allergy. Modern environments are now less favorable for promoting healthy immune development in early life, and factors such as reduced microbial diversity and vitamin D insufficiency have been associated with higher rates of food allergy in young children. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation mediate changes in gene expression, in response to environmental factors, and epigenetic states can be passed down to subsequent generations. Epigenetic mechanisms therefore provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms linking environment, genes, and the development of food allergies. Recent evidence suggests epigenetic perturbation at immune system genes is associated with childhood food allergy. The search for the causes of epigenetic disruption and the specific factors involved is now underway. Work in this area is anticipated to enhance our understanding of gene - environment interactions and their role in complex immune diseases like food allergy. In this review, we discuss the relevance of epigenetic research in understanding childhood food allergies and offer a state-of-play for scientific advancements in this area.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Nutrition, Diet, and Epigenetics
EditorsVinood Patel, Victor Preedy
PublisherSpringer International Publishing Switzerland
Pages1293-1306
Number of pages14
Volume2
ISBN (Electronic)9783319555300
ISBN (Print)9783319555294
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes

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