Epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in US and Canadian recreational scuba diving

P Buzzacott, D Schiller, J Crain, P J Denoble

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates morbidity and mortality suffered by divers in the USA and Canada.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively recruited probability-weighted sample for estimating the national burden of injury and a weighted retrospective survey for estimating exposure.

METHODS: The National Electronic Surveillance System and Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) were searched for scuba diving injuries. The Divers Alert Network diving fatality database was searched for deaths, and Sports and Fitness Industry Association estimates for diving were obtained from annual surveys.

RESULTS: In the USA, there were an estimated 1394 emergency department (ED) presentations annually for scuba-related injuries. The majority (80%) were treated and/or released. There were an estimated 306 million dives made by the US residents 2006-2015 and concurrently 563 recreational diving deaths, a fatality rate of 0.18 per 105 dives and 1.8 per 105 diver-years. There were 658 diving deaths in the US 2006-2015 and 13,943 ED presentations for scuba injuries, giving a ratio of 47 diving deaths in the USA for every 1000 ED presentations. There were 98 cases of scuba-related injuries identified in the CHIRPP data. The prevalence of scuba-related injuries for patients aged 3-17 years was 1.5 per 105 cases, and the prevalence of scuba-related injuries to patients 18-62 years was 16.5 per 105 cases.

DISCUSSION: In Canada and the USA, only one out of every 10,000 ED presentations is due to a scuba-related injury. That there are 47 deaths for every 1000 ED presentations for scuba injuries speaks to the relatively unforgiving environment in which scuba diving takes place. For 1.8 deaths per million recreational dives, mortality in scuba diving is nonetheless relatively low.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-68
Number of pages7
JournalPublic Health
Volume155
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018

Fingerprint

Diving
Epidemiology
Morbidity
Mortality
Wounds and Injuries
Hospital Emergency Service
Canada
Sampling Studies
Sports
Industry
Databases

Cite this

Buzzacott, P ; Schiller, D ; Crain, J ; Denoble, P J. / Epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in US and Canadian recreational scuba diving. In: Public Health. 2018 ; Vol. 155. pp. 62-68.
@article{1ecf5fc31ebb469382663e59ba70319c,
title = "Epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in US and Canadian recreational scuba diving",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: This study investigates morbidity and mortality suffered by divers in the USA and Canada.STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively recruited probability-weighted sample for estimating the national burden of injury and a weighted retrospective survey for estimating exposure.METHODS: The National Electronic Surveillance System and Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) were searched for scuba diving injuries. The Divers Alert Network diving fatality database was searched for deaths, and Sports and Fitness Industry Association estimates for diving were obtained from annual surveys.RESULTS: In the USA, there were an estimated 1394 emergency department (ED) presentations annually for scuba-related injuries. The majority (80{\%}) were treated and/or released. There were an estimated 306 million dives made by the US residents 2006-2015 and concurrently 563 recreational diving deaths, a fatality rate of 0.18 per 105 dives and 1.8 per 105 diver-years. There were 658 diving deaths in the US 2006-2015 and 13,943 ED presentations for scuba injuries, giving a ratio of 47 diving deaths in the USA for every 1000 ED presentations. There were 98 cases of scuba-related injuries identified in the CHIRPP data. The prevalence of scuba-related injuries for patients aged 3-17 years was 1.5 per 105 cases, and the prevalence of scuba-related injuries to patients 18-62 years was 16.5 per 105 cases.DISCUSSION: In Canada and the USA, only one out of every 10,000 ED presentations is due to a scuba-related injury. That there are 47 deaths for every 1000 ED presentations for scuba injuries speaks to the relatively unforgiving environment in which scuba diving takes place. For 1.8 deaths per million recreational dives, mortality in scuba diving is nonetheless relatively low.",
keywords = "Adolescent, Adult, Canada/epidemiology, Child, Child, Preschool, Databases, Factual, Diving/injuries, Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Recreation, Retrospective Studies, United States/epidemiology, Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology, Young Adult",
author = "P Buzzacott and D Schiller and J Crain and Denoble, {P J}",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
year = "2018",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1016/j.puhe.2017.11.011",
language = "English",
volume = "155",
pages = "62--68",
journal = "Public Health",
issn = "0033-3506",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in US and Canadian recreational scuba diving. / Buzzacott, P; Schiller, D; Crain, J; Denoble, P J.

In: Public Health, Vol. 155, 02.2018, p. 62-68.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in US and Canadian recreational scuba diving

AU - Buzzacott, P

AU - Schiller, D

AU - Crain, J

AU - Denoble, P J

N1 - Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PY - 2018/2

Y1 - 2018/2

N2 - OBJECTIVES: This study investigates morbidity and mortality suffered by divers in the USA and Canada.STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively recruited probability-weighted sample for estimating the national burden of injury and a weighted retrospective survey for estimating exposure.METHODS: The National Electronic Surveillance System and Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) were searched for scuba diving injuries. The Divers Alert Network diving fatality database was searched for deaths, and Sports and Fitness Industry Association estimates for diving were obtained from annual surveys.RESULTS: In the USA, there were an estimated 1394 emergency department (ED) presentations annually for scuba-related injuries. The majority (80%) were treated and/or released. There were an estimated 306 million dives made by the US residents 2006-2015 and concurrently 563 recreational diving deaths, a fatality rate of 0.18 per 105 dives and 1.8 per 105 diver-years. There were 658 diving deaths in the US 2006-2015 and 13,943 ED presentations for scuba injuries, giving a ratio of 47 diving deaths in the USA for every 1000 ED presentations. There were 98 cases of scuba-related injuries identified in the CHIRPP data. The prevalence of scuba-related injuries for patients aged 3-17 years was 1.5 per 105 cases, and the prevalence of scuba-related injuries to patients 18-62 years was 16.5 per 105 cases.DISCUSSION: In Canada and the USA, only one out of every 10,000 ED presentations is due to a scuba-related injury. That there are 47 deaths for every 1000 ED presentations for scuba injuries speaks to the relatively unforgiving environment in which scuba diving takes place. For 1.8 deaths per million recreational dives, mortality in scuba diving is nonetheless relatively low.

AB - OBJECTIVES: This study investigates morbidity and mortality suffered by divers in the USA and Canada.STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively recruited probability-weighted sample for estimating the national burden of injury and a weighted retrospective survey for estimating exposure.METHODS: The National Electronic Surveillance System and Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) were searched for scuba diving injuries. The Divers Alert Network diving fatality database was searched for deaths, and Sports and Fitness Industry Association estimates for diving were obtained from annual surveys.RESULTS: In the USA, there were an estimated 1394 emergency department (ED) presentations annually for scuba-related injuries. The majority (80%) were treated and/or released. There were an estimated 306 million dives made by the US residents 2006-2015 and concurrently 563 recreational diving deaths, a fatality rate of 0.18 per 105 dives and 1.8 per 105 diver-years. There were 658 diving deaths in the US 2006-2015 and 13,943 ED presentations for scuba injuries, giving a ratio of 47 diving deaths in the USA for every 1000 ED presentations. There were 98 cases of scuba-related injuries identified in the CHIRPP data. The prevalence of scuba-related injuries for patients aged 3-17 years was 1.5 per 105 cases, and the prevalence of scuba-related injuries to patients 18-62 years was 16.5 per 105 cases.DISCUSSION: In Canada and the USA, only one out of every 10,000 ED presentations is due to a scuba-related injury. That there are 47 deaths for every 1000 ED presentations for scuba injuries speaks to the relatively unforgiving environment in which scuba diving takes place. For 1.8 deaths per million recreational dives, mortality in scuba diving is nonetheless relatively low.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Adult

KW - Canada/epidemiology

KW - Child

KW - Child, Preschool

KW - Databases, Factual

KW - Diving/injuries

KW - Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Prevalence

KW - Recreation

KW - Retrospective Studies

KW - United States/epidemiology

KW - Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology

KW - Young Adult

U2 - 10.1016/j.puhe.2017.11.011

DO - 10.1016/j.puhe.2017.11.011

M3 - Article

VL - 155

SP - 62

EP - 68

JO - Public Health

JF - Public Health

SN - 0033-3506

ER -