Epidemiology and outcomes of open globe injuries: the international globe and adnexal trauma epidemiology study (IGATES)

for IGATES Study Group - An Asia Pacific Ophthalmic Trauma Society publication, Annette K. Hoskin, Rebecca Low, Parveen Sen, Chitaranjan Mishra, Tengku Ain Kamalden, Fasika Woreta, Mehul Shah, Marian Pauly, Andres Rousselot, Gangadhara Sundar, Sundaram Natarajan, Lisa Keay, Dinesh Visva Gunasekeran, Stephanie L. Watson, Rupesh Agrawal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To detail the methodology for a novel ocular trauma registry and utilize the registry to determine the demographics, nature of injury, and associations of severe visual loss for open globe injuries (OGI). Methods: Thirteen hospitals in 7 countries used International Globe and Adnexal Trauma Epidemiology Study (IGATES) platform. Patients presenting between April 2009 and 2020 with OGI (with or without) adnexal involvement or intraocular foreign body (IOFB) were included. Results: Analyses of presenting and final VA, using “severe vision loss” (VA ≤ 6/60) and “no severe loss” (VA > 6/60), were performed. Four hundred fifty-four (64%) patients had VA < 6/60 at presentation and 327 (44.8%) at final follow-up, with a highly significant association between presenting and final VA (p < 0.0001). From the cohort of 746 patients, 37 were missing VA at presentation and 16 at follow-up and complete clinical data was available for 354 patients. The male to female ratio is 6:1, and mean age 36.0 ± 20.0 years old. Relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD), zone III injury, IOFB, and eyelid injury at presentation were recorded in 50 (6.7%), 55 (7.8%), 97 (13%), and 87 (11.7%) patients, respectively, and were significantly associated with VA < 6/60 at follow-up. Older age, ≥ 61 years, was associated with 3.39 times (95% CI: 1.95–5.89) higher risk than ≤20-year-old patients (p < 0.0001) and males 0.424 times (95% CI: 0.27–0.70) lower risk than female (p = 0.0001) of severe vision loss (SVL). Conclusion: In OGIs from 13 hospitals, female gender, older age, zone III injury, eyelid injury, and IOFB were associated with higher risk of visual outcome of SVL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3485-3499
Number of pages15
JournalGraefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


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