Environmental impact assessment of lithium ion battery employing cradle to grave

Swapnil Bawankar, Gaurav Dwivedi, Ipseeta Nanda, Víctor Daniel Jiménez Macedo, Sujeet Kesharvani, Kundan Meshram, Siddharth Jain, Sachin Mishra, Varun Pratap Singh, Puneet Verma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study is to calculate the characterized, normalized, and weighted factors for the environmental impact of a Li-ion battery (NMC811) throughout its life cycle. To achieve this, open LCA software is employed, utilizing data from product environmental footprint category rules, the Ecoinvent database, and the BatPaC database for a comprehensive Cradle to Grave assessment. The findings of the current study that certain processes have significant environmental implications, including climate change (fossil), resource usage (energy carrier), resource use (minerals and metals), and respiratory inorganic impacts. However, it is noteworthy that water scarcity contributes to 87% of the overall effect, primarily due to the utilization of acids in the hydrometallurgical process. Moreover, the impact categories mentioned above are heavily influenced by the electricity grid mix employed during both the production and consumption phases. Consequently, increasing the proportion of clean energy in the electrical grid mix has been identified as an effective strategy for reducing the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of Li-ion batteries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103530
Number of pages10
JournalSustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes


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