Entering out-of-home care during childhood: Cumulative incidence study in Canada and Australia

Melissa O'Donnell, M. Maclean, S. Sims, M. Brownell, O. Ekuma, R. Gilbert

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© 2016 The Authors
Cumulative incidence provides a more accurate indicator than annual incidence rates of the number of children who experience out-of-home care during childhood. The study utilises a cohort of all children born in Western Australia (WA) 1994–2005 and Manitoba 1998–2008 using de-identified linked data. Life tables were used to calculate the age-specific cumulative incidence over time and for at-risk groups. Cox regression was used to compare risk factors for entry to care. Manitoba had a larger proportion of children entering care compared to WA (9.4% vs 1.5% by age 12). Over time children entered care at a younger age in both WA (HR = 1.5, CI:1.4–1.5) and Manitoba (HR = 1.5, CI:1.5–1.6). Similar factors were associated with earlier age care entries in both countries including: socioeconomic disadvantage, young maternal age, maternal hospital admissions for mental health issues, substance misuse and assault. Supplementary analysis for WA showed a time trend with young children (
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-87
Number of pages10
JournalChild Abuse and Neglect
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2016


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