Enhancing epistaxis blood loss estimation with an online visual aid

Sarah Grigg, Aisling Moriarty, Angela Jacques, Peter Friedland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: A common presentation to otolaryngologists and primary care providers is epistaxis (“nosebleed”) and can range from mild to severe blood loss, representing a careful need to balance intervention and resuscitation. Our previous paper found that the accuracy of blood loss estimation improved with participants greater years of experience; this paper sought to investigate whether this experience could be taught in the form of a visual aid that was delivered online in a survey for participants to view. Methods: A pre- and post-education online survey was distributed to clinical staff via email. The two surveys were separated by exposure to a visual aid of two common items (T-shirt and tissues) with varying amounts of blood spilt on them. Participants were asked to estimate the blood loss on the item by choosing a volume on a range slider, with a total of 87 participants completing the survey. Demographic data included duration of practice and specialisation. Pre- and post-estimated means, pre-post changes and differences from actual volume were calculated for each object with marginal means and 95% confidence intervals used. Results: Several items had improved accuracy post-education including rayteks and blueys; the amount of blood spilt on the rayteks, was better estimated at an equivalent volume post-education when compared to the actual volume (actual volume: 30 mL, pre-education: 40 mL, post-education: 32.11 mL). Conclusions: Education in the digital age has been shown to have higher rates of information retention. This study demonstrates that blood loss in epistaxis is more reliably estimated in medical products with brief online visual aid. This has implications for use in varied health settings, including emergency departments and points of care with limited resources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3
JournalAustralian Journal of Otolaryngology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jan 2024


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