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Resistance to the pre-emergence herbicide trifluralin is increasing in Australian annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) populations. Three L. rigidum populations (R1, R2, and R3) collected from Australian grain fields were identified with trifluralin resistance. Both target-site and nontarget-site resistance mechanisms were investigated. No target-site α-tubulin mutations were detected in populations R1 and R3, while an Arg-243-Lys mutation was found in R2. Compared with the three trifluralin-susceptible populations, enhanced [14C]-trifluralin metabolism, quantified by measuring the amount of [14C] label partitioning into the polar phase of a hexane:methanol system, was identified in all the three resistant populations. This is the first report of metabolic resistance to trifluralin. Coevolution of target-site and nontarget-site resistance to trifluralin is occurring, and metabolic resistance is not rare in L. rigidum populations in Australia. A method was established for trifluralin metabolic resistance detection, overcoming the difficulties of quantifying this highly volatile herbicide by chromatographic methods.